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Arkiveringsdatum 220619:

Border Violence Monitoring Network 22-05-06:

Criminalisation report: Accused of solidarity till sidans topp

This report documents cases of criminalisation attempts experienced by BVMN's member organisations in several countries, mainly in the Western Balkans and Turkey in 2021. In order to contextualise these events, the report briefly introduces a definition of criminalisation, the political and legal environment, as well as relevant actors, and forms of criminalisation. In addition, it discusses the consequences of criminalisation for BVMN's member organisations and incidents of criminalisation they were subject to, listed after the countries they are located in.

The report observes a trend of deterioration in the situations of CSOs and their team members due to such incidents. Different forms of criminalisation, namely formal and informal criminalisation, scrutiny, obstacles related to visa procurement, defamation in the media and smear campaigns, as well as threats, harassment, and violence had huge negative consequences for the contributing member and partner organisations of the Network.

BVMN and its member organisations are one of several CSOs working in an increasingly restrictive environment to support and monitor the fundamental human rights of people-on-the-move in the EU. Here, the restrictive legal environment for CSOs working in this sector is combined with increasing societal, administrative, and police pressure. This is no longer a country-specific phenomenon, but rather a European- wide trend that, in line with the EU's externalisation policies on migration in general, extends well beyond its external borders.

(...)

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Asylkommissionen maj 2022:

Barnens tid och framtid - En studie av den svenska asylbyråkratin efter 2015 till sidans topp

Den här studien analyserar asylbyråkratins tidssyn, tidsanvändning och tidsstyrning, och pekar på konsekvenserna som detta får för skyddssökande familjer och rätten till asyl.

Rapporten blottlägger något av den temporala styrning som tidigare inte har undersökts eller diskuterats i offentligheten. Rapporten är en delstudie i Asylkommissionens arbete med att granska förskjutningar i restriktiv riktning i den svenska asylprocessen efter 2015 och dess konsekvenser.

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Direktlänk (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Mixed Migration Centre June 2022:

Security costs till sidans topp

How the EU's exclusionary migration policies place people on the move toward Italy and Greece at greater risk - a quantitative analysis

This report focuses on the protection challenges for people on the move along three migration routes toward Europe: the Central Mediterranean Route (CMR), the Eastern Mediterranean Route (EMR) and the Western Balkan Route (WBR). After an initial review of the literature on migration, European Union (EU) policy, and protection risks on these routes, the study provides an analysis of 4Mi data collected in Italy and Greece between 2019 and 2022.

This report, and the 4Mi surveys we used for the analysis, were conducted as part of the EU Horizon 2020-funded project "Advancing Alternative Migration Governance" (ADMIGOV).

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Arkiveringsdatum 220607:

European Migration Network 22-05-25:

Detention and alternatives to detention in protection and return procedures till sidans topp

EMN Synthesis Report

The study outlines new developments between 2015 and 2020 in the context of international protection and return procedures. It highlights the introduction of legislative changes in the majority of Member States, primarily related to the need to implement EU legislation, and to further define the scope, content and criteria for the application of detention. Member States have introduced and have, or intend to, prioritised alternatives to detention as part of their national laws on immigration and/or asylum, for instance the obligation to report to the policy or immigration authorities at regular intervals, and the requirement to communicate and reside at a designated place.

The study outlines common challenges faced by Member States with regards to the implementation and use of alternatives to detention. Examples include high administrative burden on staff and limited financial means of the third-country nationals concerned. In all Member States it is possible to detain or impose alternatives to detention on vulnerable groups. Some Member States introduced legislative changes to lower the minimum age for the application to alternatives to detention, whereas other Member States introduced new rules to prevent minors and families with minors from being detained in detention centres.

When deciding whether to apply detention or an alternative to detention, several criteria are being considered, such as the level of risk of absconding, vulnerability, and the suitability of available alternatives. In addition, with regards the impact of detention or alternatives to detention on the effectiveness of Member States' return policies and international protection procedures, the data collected suggest that detention has a bigger impact on reducing absconding rates and implementing forced return, while alternatives to detention are more often associated with shorter status determination processes and higher appeal rates.

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Europarådets parlament 22-06-03:

Protecting and caring for unaccompanied or separated migrant and refugee children till sidans topp

The Russian Federation's aggression against Ukraine, as well as the increase in arrivals of asylum seekers and migrants across the Mediterranean Sea, have caused rapidly growing numbers of unaccompanied and separated migrant and refugee children in Europe. Confronted with this worrying situation, the member States of the Council of Europe have a positive obligation - under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights - to protect private and family life, especially of unaccompanied and separated migrant and refugee children.

Following the proposals by the rapporteur Mariia Mezentseva (Ukraine, EPP/CD), the Migration Committee unanimously adopted a resolution underlining that the best interests of these children must be guaranteed, irrespective of their migration status.

Particular attention should be paid to victims of violence, abuse and human trafficking, as well as to children with special needs, including medical and psychological needs.

Member States should adopt alternative care solutions as interim measures, until children can be reunited with their families, in particular kinship care, foster care and family-based care, with supervised and independent living arrangements, the committee said.

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Se även:

Europarådets parlament 22-06-03: Measures to address the needs of refugees and displaced persons and the humanitarian crisis caused by Russia's aggression against Ukraine (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 220518:

UNHCR 22-04-29:

UN Refugee Agency appeals for urgent action amid soaring deaths at sea till sidans topp

More than 3,000 people died or went missing while attempting to cross the Central and Western Mediterranean and Atlantic last year to Europe. This is according to a new report released today by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, which calls for urgent support to prevent deaths and protect refugees and asylum seekers who are embarking on dangerous journeys by land and sea.

Of the 2021 total, 1,924 people were reported dead or missing on the Central and Western Mediterranean routes, while an additional 1,153 perished or went missing on the Northwest African maritime route to the Canary Islands. The number of those dead and missing reported in 2020 were 1,776 for the three routes. Alarmingly, since the beginning of the year, an additional 478 people have also died or gone missing at sea.

Most of the sea crossings took place in packed, unseaworthy, inflatable boats - many of which capsized or were deflated leading to the loss of life. The sea journey from West African coastal states such as Senegal and Mauritania to the Canary Islands is long and perilous and can take up to 10 days. Many boats drifted off course or otherwise went missing without trace in these waters.

Land routes also continue to be highly dangerous, where even greater numbers may have died on journeys through the Sahara Desert and remote border areas, in detention centres, or while in the captivity of smugglers or traffickers. Among the litany of abuses reported by people traveling these routes are: extrajudicial killings, unlawful and arbitrary detention, sexual and gender-based violence, forced labour, slavery, forced marriage and other gross human rights violations.

The COVID-19 pandemic and related border closures that continued in 2021 have also impacted movements towards North Africa and European coastal countries, with many desperate refugees and migrants turning to smugglers to facilitate these perilous journeys.

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Danish Refugee Council May 2022:

Protecting Rights at Borders (PRAB) till sidans topp

Welcoming at one border, rejecting at another - PRAB Initiative partners recorded 1911 pushback incidents during the first three months of 2022.

From January to March 2022, DRC and nine civil society organizations across Europe documented over 1900 incidents of men, women and children being pushed back by border police, law enforcement officials or other authorities from EU Member States.

Since the start of war in Ukraine, several million people have sought protection in Europe, with an unprecedented show of solidarity from the EU. Pushback reports collected by PRAB Initiative partners, however, show that protection in the EU remains mostly out of reach for non-Ukrainian nationals, even for those fleeing Ukraine.

The most recent report by Protecting Rights At Borders (PRAB) initiative, includes data gathered by partners across EU's external and internal borders during the first three months of 2022. The report shows that across the EU and its borders, little has changed when it comes to the treatment of persons from Asia, Africa and the Middle East who try to seek protection. Half of all persons reporting experiencing pushback came from Afghanistan, while 1 in every 10 pushbacks recorded involved children.

The two faces of EU Member States approach to ensuring protection remains visible at the EU external borders with Belarus, where while people fleeing Ukraine are warmly welcomed, for those crossing into EU via Belarus it is impossible to apply for international protection or even to access basic assistance.

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Arkiveringsdatum 220413:

Migrationsverket 22-04-04:

Gemensamt uppdrag har ökat kunskapen om våld till sidans topp

Migrationsverket har en viktig roll att spela i att upptäcka och motverka våld i olika former i kontakt med sökanden.

- Kunskap om våldsutsatthet är viktigt i alla våra möten. Men extra aktuellt nu när vi har så många kvinnor och barn på flykt från Ukraina, säger Eva-Katarina Ekermann, expert på Migrationsverkets nationella operativa avdelning.

Sedan sommaren 2019 har Försäkringskassan, Arbetsförmedlingen, Migrationsverket och Socialstyrelsen arbetat tillsammans i ett regeringsuppdrag som samordnats av Jämställdhetsmyndigheten. Uppdraget har handlat om att öka medvetenhet och kunskap om våldsutsatthet och våld i nära relationer och redovisas i en slutrapport till regeringen den 31 mars.

- Vi har gjort stora ansträngningar för att öka medvetenheten om våld genom information och utbildningar så att fler får hjälp och stöd, säger Eva-Katarina Ekermann.

I rapporten finns slutsatser för hur arbetet med att upptäcka och motverka våld ska vara framgångsrikt.

- Våldsutsatthet kan till exempel vara ett skäl för att beviljas uppehållstillstånd i Sverige. Migrationsverket ska därför informera om vad våld är och ställa frågor om våld i mötet med de sökande men vi behöver göra det i större utsträckning än idag.

Eva-Katarina Ekermann konstaterar att Ukrainakrisen aktualiserat frågan om våldsutsatthet på ett påtagligt sätt.

- Det är främst kvinnor och barn som flyr och vi vet att det finns en starkt förhöjd risk att en hel del av dem att bli utsatta för olika former av våld och människohandel.

(...)

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Picum 22-04-04:

Turning 18 and undocumented: Ensuring a safe transition into adulthood till sidans topp

For thousands of migrant children and young people in Europe, turning 18 means transitioning into an uncertain future, with too few resources to navigate this phase of their life.

The safeguards that international and EU law guarantee to children, regardless of their residence status, no longer apply once they turn 18. Children lose, for example, preferential access to essential support and services like health care, specialised social workers, schooling and training, or a guardian.

This loss of child rights, called 'ageing out', is a fact for all children who turn 18. But for hundreds of thousands of children with a precarious residence status, ageing out not only means losing the fundamental rights they held as children, but also becoming undocumented on their 18th birthday. And, without a secure residence permit, undocumented young people, whether unaccompanied or in families, are prevented from doing most of the things that their peers do, like studying, working, or getting a driver's license. Often, they must leave wherever they were living, and risk becoming homeless.

Unaccompanied children also lose the little protection they had from deportation. Most (16 of 27) EU member states protect unaccompanied children from deportation, either by issuing a temporary residence permit until they turn 18 or by not implementing return orders while they are underage. But, unless the child has secured a residence permit that lasts into adulthood, these protections fall away when they turn 18.

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Delmi 22-04- 11:

Enkät om afghaners erfarenheter av att söka asyl i Sverige till sidans topp

En enkätundersökning om afghaners erfarenheter av Sverige som asylland. Du är anonym och du kan välja att göra undersökningen på svenska eller dari.

Syftet med undersökningen är att öka vår kunskap om afghaners erfarenheter av Sverige och asylprocessen, samt identifiera områden där det kan behövas mer kunskap.

Vid frågor kontakta ju.delmi@regeringskansliet.se

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Arkiveringsdatum 220404:

UNHCR 22-03-28:

Climate Change, Displacement and Human Rights till sidans topp

The impacts of climate change, such as desertification, rising sea levels and more frequent and severe weather events undermine the enjoyment of human rights - including the rights to life, water and sanitation, food, health and adequate housing. The adverse effects of climate change contribute to vulnerability, human mobility and displacement and pose increased risk to the human rights of displaced persons, many of whom live in countries most affected by climate change.

Displacement in climate change-fuelled crises is already a global reality - a reality that reflects and amplifies the deep inequalities and injustices in our world today. Countries and communities that have contributed the least to global warming are bearing the brunt of its negative impact.

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Arkiveringsdatum 220324:

FRA 22-03-23:

What are the key fundamental rights risks at the EU-Ukraine borders? till sidans topp

High danger of human trafficking, concerns about discrimination and racism, and overreliance on volunteers. These are some of the key fundamental rights issues the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) identified at the EU border check points with Ukraine. While FRA witnessed overwhelming support to everyone fleeing the conflict, the Agency stresses the need to stay vigilant and address arising issues to ensure people's rights are upheld.

"I warmly welcome the heartfelt solidarity shown across Europe towards the people escaping the conflict in Ukraine," said FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty. "But there are grounds for immediate concern which urgently need addressing, such as allegations of discrimination and racism, and the danger of trafficking. In addition, EU countries need to start now planning ahead for the needs of millions of people who may no longer have a home to return to."

FRA's short report 'EU-Ukrainian border check points: First field observations' summarises observations from FRA staff at the Hungarian, Polish, Romanian and Slovak borders with Ukraine and Moldova. It highlights:

Overwhelming support - FRA witnessed tremendous solidarity towards the people fleeing from Ukraine. People were not only accepted into the EU, but officials and volunteers assisted them with kindness. Looking ahead, EU civil protection mechanisms should support authorities in providing assistance and simplifying administrative red tape.

Discrimination and racism - even though FRA did not observe any discriminatory or racist acts during its field visits, the Agency is aware of the many allegations of racism as reported in the media. These should be promptly investigated. Authorities should be diligent to prevent such acts and civil society should be encouraged to report incidents.

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Arkiveringsdatum 220304:

FRA 22-03-03:

EU borders situation: a serious fundamental rights concern in 2021 till sidans topp

At the end of 2021, allegations for the treatment of migrants at EU borders as well as difficult conditions in detention and reception centres remained a persistent fundamental rights concern. This is according to the latest migration bulletin from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA).

FRA's latest migration bulletin covers the last three months in 2021.

The bulletin mentions allegations of collective expulsions as migrants are turned away at some of the EU's land and sea borders without an opportunity to apply for international protection.

The migration and asylum pressures at the EU's Belarusian border also feature where, according to the UN's Refugee Agency (UNHCR), thousands of migrants were stranded along the border in Belarus. As the weather turned cold, reportedly many people died.

The Bulletin also points to allegations of mistreatment of migrants at the borders.

Overcrowding, and poor access to clean water and sanitation in detention, reception centres and camps in some countries remains a recurring fundamental rights issue.

This migration bulletin covers 1 October until 31 December 2021. It looks at the fundamental rights situation in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands, North Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

The next edition will cover the situation resulting from the war in Ukraine.

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Arkiveringsdatum 220215:

Mare Liberum 2022:

Pushback Report 2021 till sidans topp

This publication highlights reports of affected refugees and eyewitnesses and denounces institutionalized violence against people on the move.

Pushback is a term that refers to the violent forcing back of people seeking protection across a border. This practice violates international law and deprives people of their right to asylum.

The Pushback Report 2021 first provides a brief overview of the history of European border violence and illustrates different ways of dealing with different migratory movements of the European border regime.

In the main part of the publication, it becomes clear that illegal pushbacks have become a regular practice of human rights violations against people on the move. These are neither isolated cases nor a "side effect" of so-called border protection. Rather, different testimonies reveal impressively that (physical) violence, humiliation and torture are used as strategic means to prevent fleeing people from reaching EU territory, also by illegal methods. Also, the current developments in the Aegean Sea from 2021 on the shifting of flight routes, number of fatalities and missing people as well as arrivals of people on the Greek islands, are put into context with the established practice of pushbacks.

The report shows that the executive organs of the Hellenic Coast Guard and Frontex face no real consequences. Instead of prosecuting these crimes, there is a growing effort by several EU member states to legalize pushbacks. Finally, the publications takes a look back at the monitoring missions in the Aegean in 2017 and 2021, which make clear the repressive way in which human rights monitoring is being countered.

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Röda Korset 22-02-02:

Bortom förvar - om alternativ till förvar och effekterna av frihetsberövande till sidans topp

Röda Korset presenterar en ny rapport om alternativ till förvar samt om effekterna av frihetsberövande.

I rapporten analyserar vi bland annat grunderna för förvar- och uppsiktsbeslut samt hur prövningen av besluten ser ut. Utifrån detta lämnas flera rekommendationer till lagstiftare och tillämpande myndigheter.

Att förvarsta någon i syfte att verkställa ett beslut om utvisning får inte förekomma i andra situationer än som en sista utväg när andra alternativ har visat sig verkningslösa.

Med anledning av detta är frågan om förvarstagande av stor praktisk och principiell betydelse för Röda Korsets uppdrag att förhindra och lindra mänskligt lidande - lokalt, nationellt och globalt. Samtidigt noterar vi i Sverige allt fler politiska förslag gällande fler tvångsåtgärder samt en utökning av förvarsplatser och förvarstagande i syfte att effektivisera återvändandet. Röda Korset arbetar med migranters rättigheter, behov och skydd längs hela migrationsvägen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 211231:

OSCE 21-10-05:

Border Management and Human Rights till sidans topp

Collection, processing and sharing of personal data and the use of new technologies in the counter-terrorism and freedom of movement context

This policy brief provides an overview of the implications of collecting and sharing information in the context of border management and how the introduction or continued use of new technologies in the border space may affect human rights. It also provides recommendations to OSCE participating States on how to respect and protect human rights when using new technologies to manage their borders.

/Ur Conclusion:/

While states have the right to control who enters their territory and an obligation to counter terrorism and other crime, this must be done in full compliance with international human rights standards. The emergence and growing use of new border management technologies that gather and process large amounts of personal data to track, identify and control those crossing borders poses new challenges for the protection of human rights. Technology is far from neutral. Placing people under suspicion based on assumptions generated by algorithms, discriminatory profiling, surveillance, and privacy and other human rights infringements resulting from the collection, processing and sharing of biometrics, API/PNR and other travel-related data are just some of the human rights risks such technologies entail.

These risks are amplified by a lack of transparency and oversight of systems developed for border management; and they put people in particular situations of vulnerability, such as migrants, asylum seekers and refugees, especially at risk. Over-securitized border management, which denies people their rights and targets those who are in most acute need of protection, will lose the trust of the communities it should serve. Consequently, it will not create more security but less. Human rights protections are a vital tool to ensure effective cross-border security.

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Protect yyy 21-12-06:

NORCOM, the Norwegian Dissemination and Communication Network of PROTECT till sidans topp

In January 2021, PROTECT received supplementary funding from the The Research Council of Norway to disseminate and communicate research-based knowledge about international refugee protection to Norwegian actors involved in refugee protection, emergency aid and asylum & migration as a policy field.

In October, the dissemination and communication network, for the first time, have met in a closed symposium with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, UNE and UDI, and researchers from PROTECT and its sister project, VULNER. The aim was to discuss Norway's asylum and refugee policy, in addition to Norway's work on implementing the UN`s Global Compacts on refugees and migration.

The network includes the following organizations: University of Bergen, University of Oslo, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Institute for Social Research, European Council on Refugees and Exiles, Norwegian Red Cross, A Drop in the Ocean, The Norwegian Centre against Racism, The Norwegian Organization for Asylum Seekers, and the Twelfth of January Association .

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FRA 21-12-09:

Unaccompanied children outside the child protection system - Case study till sidans topp

Violence, exploitation, terrible living conditions or limited access to healthcare and education. These are the realities unaccompanied migrant children face in Europe. A new report from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) suggests steps the EU and its Member States should take to offer better protection to unaccompanied children and ensure their rights are respected.

FRA's report 'Unaccompanied children outside the child protection system - Case study: Pakistani children in Greece' documents the hardships unaccompanied children faced coming to Europe. It also details the challenges of being in Europe.

It highlights how those who travel alone risk sexual and labour exploitation, and abuse.

Most Member States cover the protection of unaccompanied migrant children in their asylum policies rather than in general child protection systems for children without parental care. Therefore, children who are not in the asylum system face greater risks. These include children who had difficulties seeking asylum or had their application rejected.

The report suggests what the EU and its Member States could do to protect the rights of unaccompanied migrant children who are outside the child protection system. This includes:

+ improving the identification and registration of unaccompanied children, and then appointing them guardians;

+ providing unaccompanied children who fall through the asylum system with a clear legal status, so they can effectively access basic rights, such as healthcare and education;

+ improving data collection to allow authorities to design evidence-based responses;

+ preventing and investigating fundamental rights violations at borders;

+ addressing exploitation and victimisation.

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SOS Torture Network 21-12-15:

Africa : New report exposes torture as a defining feature of the migration journey till sidans topp

Torture is present at every point on the migration roads in Africa, says a report published today by the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT).

The report, titled The Torture Roads - The Cycle of Abuse against People on the Move in Africa, is the first to analyse comprehensively the experiences of migrants on the continent. It is the result of a unique collective research spanning two years, and covering eight countries in West, Central, East and North Africa that include places of origin and transit for migrants, asylum seekers and refugees who seek security, protection, and a better life. The research was carried out by a working group comprised of 10 human rights organisations from Africa and Southern Europe specialising in migration and torture, who interviewed over 250 refugees, asylum seekers and other migrants, as well as humanitarian workers and government officials.

"While migratory movements to Europe keep attracting a lot of attention, the strong nexus between migration and torture has largely remained in the shadows," said Gerald Staberock, OMCT Secretary General. "Our research exposes a crude reality: torture and other forms of ill-treatment are a trigger to migration; they are ubiquitous on the migration roads, where they have dramatically worsened over recent years; and finally, the vast majority of victims never receive any form of treatment, despite having suffered horrendous abuse."

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Arkiveringsdatum 211122:

Röda Korset 21-11-17:

Rapport: Avslag på asylansökan till sidans topp

Globalt befinner sig 80 miljoner människor på flykt idag, det högsta antalet någonsin, varav nästan hälften är barn. Den Internationella rödakors och rödahalvmånerörelsen finns på plats för att förhindra och lindra lidande samt mildra humanitära konsekvenser i 192 av världens länder - i krig, konflikt och katastrofer, i flyktingläger och längs flyktens väg.

Varje människa i behov av skydd har rätt att få sina asylskäl prövade på ett rättssäkert sätt. Beslutet om avslag på asylansökan innebär för många en chock som är förknippad med rädsla för att återvända. Oavsett orsaken till att man sökt asyl innebär beslutet för merparten en oro, besvikelse och en personlig kris. Som en konsekvens av detta kan återvändandet ofta vara den svåraste delen av en migrationsprocess. Det är sällan ett helt frivilligt beslut att återvända. Ofta sker ett återvändande på grund av att myndigheterna bedömt att det inte finns skäl för uppehållstillstånd.

Den Internationella rödakors- och rödahalvmånerörelsen arbetar för att alla migranters rättigheter ska respekteras i hela migrationsprocessen och detta gäller även vid en utvisning eller ett återvändande.

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Arkiveringsdatum 211104:

Stockholms Universitet 21-09-15:

Children's lived rights: The everyday politics of asylum-seeking children till sidans topp

Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis explores asylum-seeking children's everyday politics in relation to their situation in the Swedish reception system. It engages in a theorization of children's political agency in which a broad definition of politics is adopted to examine and acknowledge the politics embedded in children's everyday spaces and children's everyday actions. Methodologically, it draws on a one-year ethnographic fieldwork and participatory methods with 18 children aged 6-12 years in two institutional settings: the school and the asylum centre. The thesis involves three empirical studies, covering arenas that the children themselves identified as important in their everyday lives.

The first study explores the children's articulated standpoints on "home" underpinned by their experiences of an institutional housing lacking home-like conditions. It shows how the children's articulations identified spatial and relational conditions of "house" and "home" and how they criticized the asylum centre's regulated time-space, which denied them these conditions, for example, desired food practices, spaces for play, privacy and family life. Moreover, the children's experiences of living in an unsafe housing was reinforced through their lived fears, that is, their experiences of threats from the "Police" or "Security" and overly strict treatment from staff members of the "Reception" in addition to their fear of deportation. This study shows how the children's critique implicitly identified how their right to wellbeing in their housing was restricted or denied.

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Alarm Phone and ARCI Porco Rosso 21-10-15:

From sea to prison - The Criminalization of Boat Drivers in Italy till sidans topp

Freedom of movement is a right, not a crime. But over the past decade, Italy has arrested thousands of people in connection with driving migrant boats across the Mediterranean Sea. Our report describes their journeys from sea to prison, examining and taking a stand against the criminalization of migration.

Italy has spent decades pursuing people who have done nothing other than drive a boat of migrants towards its shores, utilizing criminal law, undercover police operations and emergency anti-Mafia powers to re-enforce Europe's border regime.

We have spoken to hundreds of people involved - persons accused of boat driving, ex-prisoners, lawyers, researchers, activists, judges and members of the police and Coast Guard - and studied dozens of court sentences to reveal the full extent of Italy's process of criminalizing migration.

Life sentences

The prison sentences that have been issued range from 2 years to 20 years - and sometimes even more. Of the nearly 1,000 cases we have discovered through a systematic media review, we have found 24 people with prison sentences of over 10 years, and 6 people who have received life sentences.

Imprisoning refugees

Boat drivers come from many countries, and are often migrants and refugees too. In 2018 and 2019, the police arrested around one person for every hundred migrants who arrived.

From a review of nearly one thousand cases, we estimate that over a third of the arrestees are from North Africa, 20% from Eastern Europe and 20% from West Africa. Many of the West and North African citizens arrested and imprisoned in Italy were forced to drive boats from Libya, a country they were fleeing from. In the case of the Eastern European boat drivers, many recount that they were tricked into people smuggling.

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GCR / AYS 21-10-16:

7 in 10 people on the move subject to detention in Greece, report finds till sidans topp

A new report published by Oxfam and the Greek Council for Refugees found that seven in 10 people on the move are placed in 'administrative detention' in Greece - a practice which the report's authors say violates human rights.

"In Greece, the detention of migrants is the rule, not the exception," Vasilis Papastergiou of the Greek Council for Refugees (GCR) said upon the report's release.

The report, entitled "Detention as the default: How Greece and the EU are generalising the administrative detention of migrants," found an "excessive use of administrative detention" for some 3,000 people on the move as of June 2021. Administrative detention refers to the imprisonment of an individual without any charges being filed against them. The report found that 70% of people on the move were subjected to this kind of detention, while the majority remained detained even while their asylum claim was being processed.

"Administrative detention is just another tool to stop people from seeking safety in Europe," Papastergiou of GCR said. "Europe's hands not clean, either, as the EU funds the new 'closed and controlled' quasi-detention centres, places where migrants are left to be forgotten."

Nearly half of those detained (46%) remained in administrative detention for over six months, while one in five people were held for long periods of time in police cells, normally designed to hold individuals for only a few hours. Pregnant women, children and people with disabilities were detained without proper access to health care and legal aid, the report added.

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Arkiveringsdatum 211018:

EUROPP blogg 21-10-11:

Using refugees as leverage? Greece and the instrumentalisation of the migrant crisis till sidans topp

How does forced migration feature in the foreign policy approaches of EU member states and how does it affect their bargaining strategies? Drawing on a new study, Gerasimos Tsourapas and Sotirios Zartaloudis assess the foreign policy response of Greece during the 2015-16 migrant crisis. They detail how the Greek government first adopted a 'blackmailing' strategy focused on threats, before shifting to a 'backscratching' strategy of co-operation once the numbers of asylum seekers within its territory were reduced.

The Syrian refugee crisis has been one of the gravest outcomes of the Syrian Civil War, which has been ongoing since 2011. Currently, the conflict has resulted in over 6 million internally displaced persons as well as over 5.6 million forced migrants seeking shelter abroad. As the EU became implicated in this during the 2015-16 European migrant crisis, EU member states pursued a range of diverse strategies that have yet to be adequately discussed.

In this blog post, we summarise the findings of a research project aiming to expand upon existing understandings of the interplay between forced migration and EU member states' bargaining strategies within the context of the 2015-16 European migrant crisis. We focus on Greece, an EU member state particularly affected by forced migration, arguing that it explicitly adopted an issue-linkage strategy that relied, firstly, on blackmailing and, secondly, on backscratching over two time periods.

Initially, between January 2015 and March 2016, the SYRIZA-ANEL coalition government was able to pursue a coercive foreign policy strategy of blackmailing based on threats. This was due to the country's strategic geopolitical position vis-ā-vis the EU: Greece served as the initial point of the 'Balkan corridor,' while transfers of asylum seekers to Greece under the Dublin Regulation had been suspended, further strengthening the country's position as a 'transit' rather than a 'host' state.

However, from March 2016 onwards, Greece shifted to a non-coercive bargaining approach via backscratching, which sought to secure economic payoffs based on co-operation necessitated by the diminished geopolitical importance of the country vis-ā-vis the EU: implementation of the 2016 EU-Turkey Statement led to a dramatic decrease of refugee inflows, while the closure of the Balkan corridor and the resumption of Dublin transfers effectively transformed Greece into a migrant-host state.

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Se studien: Leveraging the European Refugee Crisis: Forced Displacement and Bargaining in Greece's Bailout Negotiations (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 211006:

IOM 21-09-29:

Report: Families of missing migrants forced to go it alone searching for relatives till sidans topp

A report released today by the International Organization for Migration's (IOM) Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) calls on governments to urgently improve support for tens of thousands of missing migrant families who are often forced to rely on smugglers and other informal networks in tracing loved ones.

The Centre's Missing Migrants Project compiled the report based on research with 76 families of missing migrants in Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Spain and the United Kingdom. Entitled "Families of Missing Migrants: Their Search for Answers and the Impacts of Loss - Lessons across four countries", the report's accompanying policy briefing proposes 10 recommendations for authorities, international organizations and other actors to improve the response to cases of missing migrants and support for their families.

"The study aims to amplify the voices of people with loved ones missing on migration journeys, and to better understand their challenges," said GMDAC Director Frank Laczko. "Sharing these findings with the public is but a first step in improving the support mechanisms for migrants and the people they leave behind."

Despite human rights obligations under international law, some governments are ignoring the perspectives of missing migrant families and communities in policy debates about safe migration, resulting in persistent exclusion and marginalization, which has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The research showed that because of inadequate responses by state actors, families resorted to using informal networks, including other migrants, community-based associations and smugglers, in their searches. It also highlights that authorities often frame missing migrant cases as investigations into migrant smuggling operations: when families (or activists acting on their behalf) reported the disappearances of migrants to authorities, they were often pushed for information concerning the smugglers who organized their loved one's journey, rather than about the disappearance itself.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210921:

Delmi 21-09-17:

Jag återvände frivilligt men jag hade inget val till sidans topp

Vad kan vi lära oss av erfarenheterna hos dem som har gått igenom återvändandeprocessen och vad innebär det förändrade säkerhetsläget i Afghanistan för de som är kvar? Delmis AMIF-finansierade studie baseras på semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med 100 avvisade asylsökande som har återvänt från Sverige till Afghanistan eller Irak under de senaste åren.

I samband med översättningen av policy briefen Those who were sent back: Return and reintegration of rejected asylum seekers to Afghanistan and Iraq (2021:10) så har Delmi intervjuat en av de ensamkommande afghaner som kom till Sverige under flyktingkrisen. Det här är Bomans historia, som även delas av många av respondenterna i Delmis studie. Boman befinner sig för tillfället i Pakistan, det land som han har vuxit upp i. Han blev utvisad till Kabul och vårt forskningsresultat visar att endast hälften av respondenterna återvände till en plats där de känner sig hemma.

- "Afghanistan var ett nytt land för mig, precis som när jag flyttade till Sverige. Det är mitt hemland men jag hade aldrig varit där innan. Det var en ny kultur och jag hade svårt att förstå språket. Jag försökte att inte prata för mycket så det inte skulle märkas att jag inte kom därifrån", förklarar han.

Afghanistan var ett nytt land för mig, precis som när jag flyttade till Sverige. Det är mitt hemland men jag hade aldrig varit där innan.

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Hämta Delmi-rapporten på engelska, kurdiska, arabiska eller pashto (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210904:

Georgetown Immigration Law Journal March 2021

Buying your way out of the convention: Safe third country agreements in practice till sidans topp

Jacqueline Lewis

In the last decade, the world has seen an historic increase in the number of displaced persons. By the end of 2010, there were 43.7 million forcibly displaced people worldwide-what was then the highest number in 15 years.

By 2019, the number of displaced persons had nearly doubled to 79.5 million. With many asylum systems overwhelmed, States have increasingly sought to construct alternatives to the traditional asylum regime by externalizing the processing of asylum applications through bilateral and multilateral agreements, wherein a designated safe third country processes asylum applications.

Although initially conceived as burden-sharing systems, after three decades of implementation in different States, these "safe third country agreements" ("STCAs") have generally failed to provide sustainable solutions to mass flows of refugees. Instead, STCAs with significant power and wealth disparities between parties have allowed wealthy States to clandestinely buy their way out of their obligations under the 1951 Refugee Convention4 and have resulted in the direct and indirect refoulement, or return of millions of asylum seekers, despite these agreements purportedly protecting against it.

This Note examines the expansion of STCAs in the last three decades, focusing on the American and European systems, analyzing their efficacy at providing sustainable solutions to unprecedented displacement.

Läs eller hämta studien (Extern länk)

Se även:

National Immigrant Justice Center 21-08-03: New report: How offshoring and externalization policies imperil the right to asylum (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210808:

PLOS One 21-03-23:

Associations between memory loss and trauma in US asylum seekers till sidans topp

A retrospective review of medico-legal affidavits

Altaf Saadi, Kathryn Hampton, Maria Vassimon de Assis, Ranit Mishori mfl

Background

The U.S. immigration system mandates that persons seeking asylum prove their persecution claim is credible and their fear of returning home is well-founded. However, this population represents a highly trauma-exposed group, with neuropsychiatric symptoms consequent to prior torture or maltreatment that may interfere with cognitive function and their ability to recall their trauma. These memory lapses may be incorrectly perceived by asylum adjudicators as indicators of dishonesty and jeopardize the person's credibility and asylum claim. Our retrospective mixed methods study seeks to present associations between trauma and memory loss in a sample of persons seeking asylum to the U.S. and describe how memory impairments manifest in this trauma-exposed population.

Methods

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WHO June 2021:

Refugees and migrants in times of COVID-19 till sidans topp

mapping trends of public health and migration policies and practices

Overview

"Refugees and migrants in times of COVID-19: mapping trends of public health and migration policies and practices" provides an overview of the complex nexus of public health and migration policies amid the COVID-19 pandemic with the aim to inform policymakers on how the needs of refugees and migrants have been addressed in response to the pandemic. Based on the mapping of policies and practices, the report goes on presenting policy considerations for an integrated approach to migration and public health to facilitate international dialogue and knowledge sharing around the health needs of refugees and migrants and how to address them.

The report is the first publication of the Global Evidence Review on Health and Migration (GEHM) series, an evidence-informed normative product of the WHO Global Health and Migration Programme (PHM) that aims to respond to policy questions on migration-related public health priorities. The GEHM series addresses knowledge gaps on the health status and health policies related to refugees and migrants by summarizing the best available evidence worldwide and proposing policy considerations. Thereby, the series seeks to support evidence-informed policymaking and targeted interventions that are impactful and make a difference in the lives of refugees and migrants.

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Journal of International Migration and Integration 21-07-11:

"I've Got Many Stories You Know"-Problematizing Silence Among Migrant Girls till sidans topp

Elin Ekström, Ann-Christine Andersson & Ulrika Börjesson

Abstract

This paper presents a study on inhabited silence among unaccompanied female minors in Sweden. Silence among unaccompanied minors has often been explained by experienced trauma. Conversely, research also explains silence as a natural way of establishing autonomy during adolescence. By analyzing the narratives of 11 unaccompanied female minors, we aim to problematize and broaden the understanding of silence as a lack of communication. By using Bourdieu's concept of linguistic capital, we analyze how hegemonic narratives on migration and integration influence how the girls in this study use silence in their everyday interactions. Our findings suggest that silence can be understood as both a rejection of these narratives and a strategy to preserve the girls' integrity. We also demonstrate how these girls negotiate their linguistic capital in relation to embodiment and othering, thereby pushing boundaries of identity and what it means to be seen as Swedish. The paper concludes that silence itself speaks and shows that what is often perceived as a lack of communication can also be understood as a failure to listen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210720:

Linköpings Universitet 21-07-05:

Fast i en mardröm - om den svenska asylrätten till sidans topp

Riksdagen har sagt ja till regeringens förslag till ändringar i utlänningslagen där den tillfälliga lag som infördes 2016 ska bli permanent från och med den 20 juli. Vad kommer det ha för inverkan på rättssäkerheten, solidariteten och människors öden?

- Det finns ett väldigt stort problem idag vad gäller möjligheten för människor som tvingats på flykt att sätta sig i säkerhet och skapa sig ett tryggt liv. Detta kommer bli ett ännu större problem nu, säger Anna Lundberg som är forskningsledare för Asylkommissionen som är ett samarbete mellan civilsamhälle, forskare och professionella.

Verksamheten bedriver gränsöverskridande forskning och studier av förskjutningar i grundläggande rättsprinciper för personer som sökt skydd i Sverige.

- Det finns en bild av invandring som ett problem, snarare än en resurs, som gör att människor som flytt inte får möjligheter att skapa sig en framtid i trygghet. Med den nya lagen kommer många fler än idag hamna i en långdragen osäker väntan. Andra problem rör välfärdssamhällets institutioner som kommer att dras in ännu mer i sammanhang av migrationskontroll och återvändandepolitik. Det är orimligt att professioner som arbetar med att tillhandahålla välfärdstjänster ska syssla med att kontrollera människors rättsliga status. Detta kommer i vissa fall leda till situationer där exempelvis socialarbetare och lärare pressas till att agera i motsats till professionsetiska regler eller i strid med internationella åtaganden om mänskliga rättigheter. Även myndigheter som håller på med migrationskontroll, till exempel domstolar och Migrationsverket, kommer få en ökad arbetsbelastning som blir kostsam.

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Bail for Immigration Detainees 21-07-08:

Research: "Every day is like torture": Solitary confinement & Immigration detention till sidans topp

New research published today by Bail for Immigration Detainees (BID) and Medical Justice documents the devastating impact upon immigration detainees in prisons of conditions amounting to indefinite solitary confinement.

People held for immigration reasons (including torture survivors and those with serious vulnerabilities) are locked in their cells for over 22 hours a day, most often 23.5, with people sometimes being held in their cells for days at a time and unable to take a shower. Some are self-harming, attempting suicide and unable to sleep or eat. They report existing in a state of endless despair. Physical symptoms include involuntary shaking, memory loss and physical pain. As one man told us:

"I didn't enter prison with mental health problems but I'm not the same person I was. My mind is not the same. I'm not sure if what has happened to be can be repaired."

Another said:

"It just feels illegal because of what it's doing to my mind and body. If this isn't breaching my rights, then what will? It's as though I've fallen into a crack that the Home Office opened and I can't get out."

The research released today is based on interviews with 5 immigration detainees and on medico-legal reports produced by doctors, as well as reviews of case files that argue for the release of people held in prolonged confinement - either solitarily or with a cell-mate.

Key findings:

Five disturbing statements describe people being pushed to the limit of what a human being can be expected to endure. Two people described the experience as torture. Their statements are distressing to read but they have been included in this report.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210701:

UNHCR Sverige 21-06-18:

Världsledare måste agera för att vända den kraftiga ökningen av människor på flykt till sidans topp

UNHCR, FN:s flyktingorgan, uppmanar idag världsledare att stärka arbetet med att främja fred, stabilitet och samarbete för att vända den snart tio år långa trend där allt fler människor tvingas på flykt på grund av våld och förföljelse.

Trots pandemin har antalet människor på flykt från krig, våld, förföljelse och kränkningar av mänskliga rättigheter under 2020 stigit till närmare 82,4 miljoner, enligt UNHCR:s årliga Global Trends Report som släpps i Genčve idag. Detta är en ökning på ytterligare fyra procent från det rekordhöga antalet på 79,5 miljoner vid slutet av 2019.

Rapporten visar att vid slutet av 2020 fanns 20,7 miljoner flyktingar under UNHCR:s mandat, 5,7 miljoner palestinska flyktingar och 3,9 miljoner venezuelaner fördrivna från sitt hemland. Ytterligare 48 miljoner människor var internflyktingar. Utöver det var 4,1 miljoner asylsökande. Siffrorna visar på att konflikter har fortsatt att driva människor från sina hem trots pandemin och uppmaningar till vapenvila.

- Bakom varje siffra finns en person som har tvingats fly från sitt hem, och en historia om flykt, förlust och lidande. De förtjänar vår uppmärksamhet och stöd - inte bara för att ta emot humanitär hjälp utan även för att finna lösningar på deras situation, sa Filippo Grandi, FN:s högkommissarie för flyktingfrågor. Flyktingkonventionen från 1951 och den globala flyktingkompakten (GCR) innehåller det juridiska ramverket och verktygen för att hjälpa de som tvingats fly, men vi behöver mycket större politisk vilja för att ta itu med konflikterna och förföljelsen som leder till att människor tvingas på flykt.

Flickor och pojkar under 18 år står för 42 procent av de som tvingas fly. De är särskilt utsatta, framför allt när kriser pågår i flera år. Nya beräkningar från UNHCR uppskattar att nästan en miljon barn föddes som flyktingar mellan 2018 och 2020. Många av dem kommer sannolikt att fortsätta att vara flyktingar under flera år.

- Tragedin med så många barn som föds in i en exiltillvaro borde vara nog för att göra långt större insatser för att förhindra och få slut på konflikter och våld, sa Grandi.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210616:

European Migration Network 21-06-11:

Annual Report explores trends on migration and asylum in the EU and Norway till sidans topp

The year 2020 brought about unforeseen developments in the areas of migration and asylum. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the number of migrants, asylum applicants and returns, and also acted as a catalyst for development of new digital solutions in asylum and migration management. These new challenges came in addition to persisting ones such as the need to continuously improve migration management systems and ensure the protection of refugees. The Annual Report on Migration and Asylum, published by the European Migration Network (EMN), provides an overview of the key developments in the EU Member States and Norway in 2020.

In 2020, COVID-19 related travel restrictions resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of third-country nationals entering the EU, either as legal migrants or as asylum seekers, and those leaving the EU in the framework of return procedures. Preliminary data indicates that the number of visa and residence permits issued in 2020 decreased by nearly 50% in some Member States, and the number of asylum applications decreased by 32.6% compared to the previous year.

Electronic systems and digital tools played a key role in maintaining the functioning of migration and asylum systems amidst restricted access to offices and physical distancing measures. Member States which did not have such services in place initially, rapidly introduced mail, online, or other electronic services for application and renewal of visas and residence permits. Measures were also put in place to protect the health of migrants and asylum seekers, and to prevent them from falling into irregular situations. A key priority among some Member States was to facilitate the admission of essential workers.

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Hämta eller läs rapporten (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Se även:

EU-kommissionen 21-06-25: New EMN study on data management in the asylum procedure (Extern länk)

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ECRE 21-06-11:

Study: Experiences of deported Afghans in current developments in Afghanistan till sidans topp

Drawing on several years of research, Afghanistan expert Friederike Stahlmann has documented the experiences of 113 of the 908 Afghans deported from Germany between December 2016 and March 2020. This article provides the key findings of her study "Experiences and Perspectives of Deported Afghans in the Context of Current Political and Economic Developments in Afghanistan" that was published by Diakonie Deutschland, Bread for the World and Diakonie Hessen in June 2021.

The majority of the deportees included in the evaluation experienced violence against themselves or their relatives because they had fled to Europe, lived there or were deported. This for example included being persecuted as enemies by the Taliban because of having fled to Europe and the alleged "defection to the enemy." The accusation of Westernization, of "immoral" behaviour in Europe, as well as apostasy, i.e. lapse from the Muslim faith due to association with non-believers, is a threat to them not only from the public, the Taliban and state actors, but also from their own families.

A further, significant risk of violence emerges from the often unpaid debts to creditors which were accrued for financing the flight to Europe. The assumption that returnees from Europe are wealthy further increases the risk of criminal attacks. All of these dangers also threaten the families of returnees. The social exclusion they face due to these dangers, as well as the stigmatization as "Westernized," unsuccessful returnees, and perceived criminals, increases the risk of becoming victim of generalized violence such as acts of war, crime, or persecution for other reasons. Afghanistan was the most insecure country in the world in 2019 and 2020.

This general violence affected over sixty percent of the deportees in this study. Although most of the deportees documented by the study were able to receive special protection in hiding places paid for by private supporters in Germany, overall about 90 percent of deportees experienced violence.

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Delmi 21-06-15:

De som skickades tillbaka: till sidans topp

Återvändande och återintegration av avvisade asylsökande till Afghanistan och Irak

Kombinationen av att inte vara tillräckligt informerad om den svenska asyl- och återvändandeprocessen och traumatiska upplevelser innan och under migrationsresan har en inverkan på förmågan att förstå ett återvändandebeslut. Det är en av slutsatserna i denna rapport som redogör för det AMIF-finansierade projektet Återvändande och återintegration.

I Delmis nya rapport undersöks vad som påverkar viljan att återvända till ursprungslandet samt hur man lyckas med återintegrationen. Studien baseras på 100 intervjuer med personer som har återvänt självmant och ofrivilligt till Afghanistan respektive Irak. Under 2020 besvarade informanterna frågor om hur deras liv såg ut innan och under resan till Sverige, perioden under asylprövningen och efter själva återvändandet. Det fyller en kunskapslucka om asylsökandes upplevelser och hur förutsättningarna ser ut för att kunna återintegreras.

Ett frivilligt och hållbart återvändande och återintegration är ett eftersträvat mål som problematiseras av rapportförfattarna då definitionerna återspeglar den politiska viljan i Sverige och i EU snarare än återvändarnas verklighet. En kontext med politisk, social och ekonomisk instabilitet kan inte anses vara hållbar om push-faktorerna kvarstår efter återvändande. Det bekräftas av att över hälften av respondenter planerar att återmigrera.

Några övergripande slutsatser och rekommendationer

Utforma en bättre kommunikationsstrategi mellan myndigheter och migranter. En professionalisering av tolktjänster och i de offentliga ombudens arbete behövs vilket i sin tur också skulle stärka rättssäkerheten i asylprocessen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210603:

Delmi 21-05-20:

Tolkfunktionen i asylprocessen till sidans topp

Asylintervjun är förmodligen den mest kritiska delen inom asylprocessen, och de allra flesta intervjuer sker med hjälp av tolk. Detta kan bli ett problem när asylsökande kommer från språkområden där det saknas tolkkompetens i Sverige, vilket i sin tur drabbar den asylsökande och är ett hot mot rättssäkerheten i asylprocessen.

Kunskapsöversikten avser att ge en bild av den forskning som finns om tolkfunktionen i asylprocessen, med särskilt fokus på de intervju- och förhandlingssituationer som förekommer när myndigheter handlägger och beslutar i frågor om asyl, alltså mötet mellan migrationsmyndigheter och asylsökande. Översikten bygger på forskning om tolkning i institutionella miljöer i allmänhet och forskning om tolkning i asylprocessen i synnerhet.

Några övergripande slutsatser och rekommendationer

+ Den viktigaste slutsatsen är att behovet av att stärka och professionalisera tolkfunktionen i asylprocessen framstår som både nödvändigt och akut.

+ Tolkar i offentlig sektor behöver få en stabilare professionell status och den etablerade tolketiken bli mer allmänt känd. Såväl de som har tolkuppdrag som andra deltagare i asylintervjuer bör ges möjlighet att träna kommunikativa strategier för att säkra och underlätta noggrant och opartiskt utförande av tolkning.

+ Turtagningen i tolkmedierade samtal inte är likadan som i enspråkiga samtal, vilket har konsekvenser för samtalets koherens och spontanitet.

+ Den befintliga forskningen är än så länge begränsad. Det finns få detaljstudier av autentiska tolkmedierade asylintervjuer, i synnerhet sådana som genomförts med tolken på distans, via telefon eller video. De studier som genomförts pekar entydigt på att brister i tolkfunktionen kan äventyra rättssäkerheten i asylprocessen.

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Cision 21-05-20: Ny kunskapsöversikt från Delmi - Tolkfunktionen i asylprocessen (Extern länk)

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Göteborgs Universitet 21-05-28:

Protester från socialarbetare stärkte ensamkommandes rättigheter till sidans topp

Från "öppna hjärtan" och "mitt Europa bygger inte murar" till omfattande restriktioner. Forskning från Göteborgs universitet visar att den nya migrationslagstiftningen innebar minskade rättigheter för ensamkommande barn och unga. När socialarbetare och andra välfärdsyrken protesterade, skapades nya förutsättningar och tillgången till rättigheter stärktes.

- Protesterna stärkte de ensamkommandes position och innebar en liten väg framåt för åtminstone en del ungdomar. Framförallt visar protesterna på en konflikt som finns i uppdraget som socialarbetare. Var ska lojaliteten ligga - hos klienterna eller hos myndigheten? säger Baharan Kazemi, doktor i socialt arbete, som i sitt avhandlingsarbete undersökt svensk lagstiftning för ensamkommande barn och unga.

I hennes studier framkommer att det som ofta benämns som ett skifte i migrationspolitiken 2015 kan förstås som en fortsättning på en mer restriktiv migrationspolitik som går längre tillbaka än så. I tidigare svenska reformer antogs dessa barn vara mer utsatta än andra barn i samhället. De ansågs också vara i behov av mer stöd och insatser än andra barn. Efter ökningen i flyktinginvandring 2015 kom reformer som innebar en successiv förskjutning av ansvar.

- Efter 2015 beskrivs ensamkommande barn och unga i svensk lagstiftning i högre grad som ett problem och en risk. De beskrivs också som självständiga och resursstarka individer som är i behov av mindre vård och stöd jämfört med andra barn i samhällets vård, säger Baharan Kazemi.

Reformerna 2015 sammanföll med den nya lagstiftningen om åldersbedömningar tidigt i asylprocessen och förändringar i Lagen om mottagande av asylsökande (LMA). Plötsligt gick tusentals barn och unga från att ha rättigheter i egenskap av barn placerade av socialtjänsten - till att ha nästan inga rättigheter alls i egenskap av vuxna som nekats asyl.

(...)

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Hämta avhandlingen: Unaccompanied minors (un-)made in Sweden. Ungrievable lives and access to rights produced through policy (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210520:

UNHCR 21-05-05:

Pandemic threatens refugee admissions through family, work, study permits till sidans topp

A new study released today shows that 1.5 million people from nations driving major refugee movements were admitted by 35 OECD countries and Brazil on family, work and study permits in the decade just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The latest report by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the OECD, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , titled "Safe Pathways for Refugees II", examines admissions from 2010 to 2019 of people from seven countries propelling displacement: Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, Syria and Venezuela.

Out of the 1.5 million non-humanitarian permits issued within the decade to help people from these countries, 156,000 were granted in 2019 alone. This exceeds an annual target of 120,000 set in a global resettlement and complementary pathways strategy launched by governments, civil society and UNHCR.

"We are encouraged by the great efforts of many states to admit refugees through these additional, safe pathways. These have reunited displaced families and given refugees the opportunity to use their talents, skills and expertise to give back to their new communities as well as rebuild their lives," said UNHCR's International Protection chief, Gillian Triggs.

While data for 2020 is yet to be compiled, the two organizations expect numbers of admissions in this period to be significantly less owing to closed borders and travel restrictions imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

"We must not let COVID-19 thwart the exceptional progress that has been made in expanding these pathways. While they are not a substitute for resettlement and humanitarian admissions, which offer more robust and longer-term forms of legal protection, they are safe and orderly forms of admission that can save lives and benefit many refugees," said Triggs.

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IOM 21-05-05:

World migration report launches dynamic new data visualization platform till sidans topp

The International Organization for Migration's (IOM) flagship publication has launched a dynamic new webpage that connects fact-based narratives on migration with interactive data visualizations on some of the latest global migration data and information. It is the first microsite of its kind since the World Migration Report (WMR) series began more than two decades ago.

"The WMR's usefulness as a tool for policy officials, researchers, journalists, academics and others interested in global migration issues and trends has been greatly enhanced by these new interactive elements that include the very latest data from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs," said Marie McAuliffe, IOM's head of research and WMR editor.

"It will be updated in the coming months ahead of the launch of the 2022 WMR later this year."

The platform contains some of the latest global and regional international migrant stock estimates, allowing users to interact with data and quickly identify important migration trends and patterns over the last 30 years across all the six global regions.

In addition to providing global and regional data, the site displays country-level migration statistics and maps, interactive visualizations of the migration corridors - including the top receiving and sending countries - and the main remittance recipient and source countries since 1995.

The microsite is available in the three IOM official languages (English, French and Spanish). IOM's most read and downloaded publication, the WMR is freely available in 10 languages either as a full publication or by chapter. Other resources related to the report such as videos and toolkits can also be accessed through the new webpage.

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Linköpings Universitet 21-05-17:

Så har ändrade asyllagar påverkat människors liv och vardag till sidans topp

Hur har barn, unga och vuxna som sökt skydd i Sverige påverkats av en allt mer restriktiv migrationspolitik? Den frågan står i fokus i en ny bok. En bredd av röster beskriver och analyserar hur den förändrade asyllagstiftningen har påverkat livsvillkor och vardagsliv.

I november 2015 meddelade den svenska regeringen förändringar i asyllagstiftningen som till stor del innebar en mer restriktiv migrationspolitik. I antologin Rättssäkerheten och solidariteten - vad hände? ger personer från olika verksamheter och med olika erfarenheter sina perspektiv på vilka konsekvenser förändringarna fått. Författarna till kapitlen är personer med egna erfarenheter av att söka asyl i Sverige, representanter från civilsamhället, personer som arbetar inom välfärdssektorn och forskare.

Det är många som vittnar om bland annat en oförutsägbar asylprocess, om familjesplittring, våld, bostadslöshet, psykisk ohälsa och ekonomisk utsatthet, menar bokens redaktörer Anna Lundberg, professor i välfärdsrätt och Sabine Gruber, universitetslektor i socialt arbete, båda vid Linköpings universitet, samt Torun Elsrud, universitetslektor i socialt arbete vid Linnéuniversitetet. Boken är skriven inom ramen för Asylkommissionen, som är ett samarbete mellan forskning och civilsamhälle.

Speciellt tydligt är det hur de skydds- och asylsökandes hälsa allvarligt påverkas, visar boken. Men också de som arbetar stödjande känner av förändringarna.

- De restriktiva asyllagarna och förskjutningar i praxis drabbar både människor som söker skydd, civilsamhällets aktörer och professioner som försöker stötta, säger Torun Elsrud.

Boken visar också att civilsamhället tar ett stort och ökat ansvar för grundläggande välfärd. Tidigare låg detta ansvar på välfärdsinstitutionerna.

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Info om beställning av tryckt exemplar, se Asylkommissionens hemsida (Extern länk)

Hämta boken i pdf-format (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210416:

IOM 21-04-09:

Iom calls for action to support families of missing migrants till sidans topp

Tens of thousands of people live with the pain and uncertainty of not knowing the fate of their relatives and loved ones who went missing or died during migration journeys around the world. Besides the emotional toll, their lives may be forever marked by the many psychosocial, legal and financial impacts related to the disappearance of their relatives.

"Families of missing migrants have little visibility, and their needs are barely addressed," said Frank Laczko, Director of IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) in Berlin.

"Besides the moral imperative, Objective 8 of the Global Compact on Migration specifically calls on states to identify those who have died or gone missing, and to facilitate communication with affected families. This is applicable regardless of migration status of the missing person or the situation of their families."

With the aim of giving a voice to these families, IOM GMDAC has carried out qualitative research with families searching for missing migrants in several countries, to?better understand the?challenges they face during their search and how they can be better supported.

The findings from this research in Ethiopia are highlighted in a report published today: Families of missing migrants: Their search for answers, the impacts of loss and recommendations for improved support in Ethiopia. The results of the research with families of missing migrants in the United Kingdom, Spain and Zimbabwe will be published throughout the next few months.

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Hämta rapporten från Etiopien (Extern länk)

Fler vittnesmål (Extern länk)

Se även:

IOM 21-04-30: New study examines challenges facing families of missing migrants in the UK (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210314:

Socialstyrelsen 21-03-01:

Kunskapscentrum för ensamkommande barn avslutar sitt arbete till sidans topp

Sedan våren 2017 har Socialstyrelsen haft i uppdrag att driva ett kunskapscenter för frågor om ensamkommande barn och unga. Nu avslutas centrets arbete och Socialstyrelsen tackar alla som har bidragit de här åren.

Kunskapscentrum för ensamkommande barn var ett initiativ från regeringen för att stärka upp stödet till kommuner och regioner. Centret inrättades på Socialstyrelsen våren 2017 och har sedan dess följt situationen för ensamkommande barn och unga. Exempel på större utmaningar som centret lyft är barnäktenskap, psykisk ohälsa, risker när barn placeras i familjens nätverk samt tillämpningen av den nya gymnasielagen.

Centrets fokus har ändrats med utvecklingen

Efter att det stora antalet asylsökande ensamkommande barn kom till Sverige 2015?2016 har en rad förändringar i regelverk och oklarheter påverkat deras situation. För att stärka arbetet i hälso- och sjukvård och socialtjänst har kunskapscentret löpande försökt tydliggöra vad som gäller på olika områden.

Dialog med andra aktörer har varit avgörande

Regelbunden dialog med andra myndigheter, civilsamhällets organisationer, SKR med flera har varit avgörande för centrets förmåga att hålla sig ā jour med situationen och bedöma vilka frågor som var viktigast att arbeta med.

? Vi som arbetat på kunskapscentret vill tacka alla som har deltagit i våra möten, informerat oss om läget och bidragit till att vi har kunnat utföra vårt uppdrag. Ett särskilt tack också till civilsamhället som stått för många viktiga insatser de här åren, säger Petra Rinman som har varit chef för kunskapscentret från start.

Förutsättningarna är betydligt bättre idag

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Europarådet 21-03-09:

European countries must change policies endangering refugees and migrants till sidans topp

"European countries are failing to protect refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe via the Mediterranean. Backsliding in the protection of the lives and rights of refugees and migrants is worsening and causing thousands of avoidable deaths each year", says Dunja Mijatovic, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, who has released a report entitled "A distress call for human rights. The widening gap in migrant protection in the Mediterranean".

The report takes stock of member states' implementation of the Commissioner's 2019 Recommendation on rescuing migrants at sea and provides a set of actionable measures to be urgently taken by European states to ensure a human rights compliant approach to sea crossings. It covers developments from July 2019 until December 2020 in five key areas: effective search and rescue; timely and safe disembarkation of rescued persons; co-operation with non-governmental organisations; co-operation with third countries; and safe and legal routes; and focuses mainly on developments on the Central Mediterranean route. However, many of the required actions set out in this document are applicable to all other major migration routes in the Mediterranean region and on the Atlantic route from West Africa to Spain.

This report stresses that, despite some limited progress, the human rights situation in the Mediterranean remains deplorable. Shipwrecks continue to be worryingly recurrent, with more than 2,400 registered deaths in the period under consideration, a number which may well under-represent the real tally of deadly incidents.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210226:

Statewatch 21-02-11:

In focus: Facial recognition tech stories and rights harms from around the world till sidans topp

A new report by the International Network of Civil Liberties Organisations looks at the use and abuse of facial recognition technology by states across the globe, providing detailed case studies from the Americas, Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe.

From Delhi to Detroit, Budapest to Bogota, Facial Recognition Technology (FRT) is being rapidly deployed in public and private spaces across the world.

As of 2019, 64 out of 176 countries were using facial recognition surveillance systems. In the US alone, more than 50 percent of all American adults were in a police recognition database, as of 2016. Law enforcement agencies say they use FRT for law enforcement purposes. For example, the FBI in the US has testified that FRT "produces a potential investigative lead".

Traditionally, FRT surveillance systems work by locating one or more faces in a moving or still image from a camera before determining unique facial features from that image. The system then runs that image, without consent, against an existing database or 'watch list' of images derived from police mugshot databases in the pursuit of a match. Other FRT systems can examine demographic trends or carry out sentiment analysis by scanning crowds, again without consent.

These systems have renowned ethnic, racial and gender biases4 against people of colour and women. This means that image-matching FRT systems, used by law enforcement agencies, are more likely to misidentify people of colour and females than white males. Such inaccuracies were illustrated in 2019 when the UK's Metropolitan Police FRT system was found to have an error rate of 81 per cent. One can only contemplate the grave implications of such inaccuracies, and consequent chilling effect on the right to protest, when one considers the indiscriminate screening of crowds during protests. For example, police in India used FRT and driving licence and voter identity databases to 'identify' 1,900 protesters during riots in Delhi in February 2020.

(...)

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Statsrådet (Finland) 21-02-16:

Undersökning om samlade effekter av ändringarna i utlänningslagen till sidans topp

Forskningsprojektet utredde vilka samlade effekter ändringarna i utlänningslagen och tillämpningspraxis har haft för personer som sökt och beviljats internationellt skydd. Undersökningen begränsades till ändringar som godkändes eller trädde i kraft under regeringsperioden 2015-2019. Den visar att lagändringarna, som gjordes för att effektivisera asylprocessen, också har försvagat de sökandes ställning.

I och med lagändringarna har det blivit vanligare att en person inte beviljas asyl eller annat uppehållstillstånd. Eftersom alla inte i den situationen lämnar landet och inte nödvändigtvis kan avlägsnas genom myndighetsåtgärder har det uppstått olika grupper av förlorare. Vissa ändringar i asylförfarandet verkar också ha ökat behovet av ändringssökande och förnyade ansökningar. Lagändringarna har alltså delvis gett motsatta resultat än vad som eftersträvades med dem. Samtidigt har utlänningslagen som helhet blivit svårare att greppa.

Undersökningen fokuserade särskilt på lagändringarnas samlade effekt för tillgodoseendet av barnets bästa. Barnens ställning förbättrades på många sätt under granskningsperioden. Förbättringarna gällde dock i huvudsak ensamkommande barn, medan ställningen för barn som kommer med sina familjer ägnats mindre uppmärksamhet. Därför har förbättringarna inte till fullo förebyggt de allmänna ändringarnas negativa konsekvenser för barn.

Som slutledning rekommenderar forskarna att följande åtgärder vidtas:

1 Kartlägga möjligheten för personer som saknar uppehållstillstånd att få uppehållstillstånd på andra grunder än internationellt skydd.

2 Justera förutsättningarna för beviljande av främlingspass.

3 Trygga stabiliteten och kontinuiteten i barnets livssituation när beslut fattas om barnets fortsatta uppehållstillstånd.

4 Trygga lika rätt till familjeåterförening för alla som beviljats internationellt skydd.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210125:

Linköpings Universitet 21-01-20:

Den långa resan - vi vill lyssna på din berättelse till sidans topp

Syftet med forskningsprojektet Den långa resan är att bättre förstå situationen för barn som kommer till Sverige som flyktingar och vad de behöver för att må bra.

Forskningsprojektet Den långa resan bedrivs på Barnafrid som är ett nationellt kunskapscentrum om våld mot barn vid Linköpings universitet.

Studien kartlägger våldsutsatthet, hälsa och erhållet stöd bland tonåringar och unga vuxna som har migrerat, med eller utan sin familj, till Sverige.

Syftet med studien

Syftet med studien är att bättre förstå hur barn som kommer till Sverige som flyktingar har det och vad de behöver för att må bra.

Vi vill också med projektet bidra till ökad kunskap på detta angelägna område. Vårt mål är även att göra forskningen aktuell och tillgänglig för alla som träffar barn och unga vuxna med en migrationsbakgrund.

Så går det till

Deltagarna i studien kommer att bli intervjuade av oss. Deltagarna får berätta om sin bakgrund, flykten till Sverige och om hur man mår i dagsläget. Vi ställer också specifika frågor om vilken hjälp deltagaren i studien har har fått - eller skulle velat ha - efter ankomsten till Sverige.

Vem står bakom?

Projektet är ett samarbete mellan Barnafrid, Flyktingmedicinskt Centrum och Rädda Barnen Sverige och finansieras av statliga medel från FORTE samt ur Drottning Silvias Jubileumsfond. Ansvarig forskare är professor Laura Korhonen och projektet är godkänt av etikprövningsnämnden (Dnr 2018/504-32 och 2019-05473).

Vill du komma i kontakt med oss?

Du är välkommen att kontakta Erica Mattelin (erica.mattelin@liu.se) eller Natalie Söderlind (natalie.soderlind@liu.se).

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Arkiveringsdatum 210111:

Nordforsk december 2020:

Nordic refugee determination: Advancing data science in migration law (NoRDASiL) till sidans topp

Despite decades of regional harmonization and international jurisprudence, the chance of receiving asylum for people from the same country or groups still varies significantly across Nordic and European countries. In 2018, Somali applicants thus had an 8% chance of receiving asylum at the first instance in Denmark, against 34% in Norway and 48% in Sweden. Vice versa, 99,5% of Eritreans were granted asylum in Denmark, compared to 89% in Norway and 83% in Sweden. These variations are not unique to the Nordic countries and have led to repeated accusations describing legal decision-making as "refugee roulette," and the EU Dublin system establishing where asylum applications should be processed as an "asylum lottery." States have similar expressed concern that differing recognition rates may lead to secondary movement and "asylum shopping" between different Nordic or EU countries.

Asylum decision-making, or refugee status determination, is moreover a complex process revolving around not only law, but also inter-subjective assessments of applicants' credibility and the import of medical and other forms of evidence. Consequently, the asylum process often appears as "black boxed" to both applicants and scholars and little is known about how different aspects interact and shape outcomes.

Drawing on unique access to large datasets of Nordic asylum case law from Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and an interdisciplinary team spanning law, computer science and medicine, NoRDASiL will produce a novel approach to answer two questions: What factors shape the production of national asylum decisions? and Why do asylum outcomes across similar cases differ so much from one another?

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Uppsala Universitet 20-12-21: Stort anslag till tvärvetenskapligt projekt i migrationsrätt (Extern länk)

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Nordic Journal of International Law 21-01-03:

The end of protection: The Danish 'paradigm shift' and the law of cessation till sidans topp

Nikolas Feith Tan, Danish Institute for Human Rights

This contribution discusses the recent 'paradigm shift' in Danish refugee policy towards temporary protection and return in light of the law of cessation. The article provides an overview of cessation standards drawing on the 1951 Refugee Convention, complementary protection under human rights law and the concept of temporary protection, before setting out the legislative changes making up the Danish 'paradigm shift'. The Danish case reveals a structural gap in the law of cessation as it regards to complementary protection. The lack of a comprehensive complementary protection framework in some jurisdictions leaves the law open to governments wishing to instrumentalise and minimise protection obligations. Finally, the article analyses legal and policy implications of the policy turn, discussing Denmark's potential role as a forerunner in temporary protection and cessation; gaps in the law of cessation vis-ā-vis complementary protection; and calling for increased scholarly focus on the law of cessation.

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WHO 20-12-18:

Migrants and refugees say COVID-19 has dramatically worsened their lives till sidans topp

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a highly negative impact on the living and working conditions of refugees and migrants reveals a new WHO study, launched today on International Migrants Day.

More than 30,000 refugees and migrants from different regions around the world participated in the first ever survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their mental and physical health as well as their ability to work and support themselves. They were asked to grade the impact on a scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 10 (extreme). The average impact assessment reported was 7.5.

"Refugees and migrants live and work in often-harsh conditions with inadequate access to health, housing, water, sanitation and other basic services," says Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. "It is vital for all countries to reduce barriers that prevent refugees and migrants from obtaining health care, and to include them in national health policies"

More than half the respondents across different parts of the world say that COVID-19 brought about greater level of depression, fear, anxiety and loneliness. One in five also talked about a deterioration of mental health and increased use of drug and alcohol.

Limited access to information due to language and cultural barriers, coupled with the marginalization of refugees and migrant communities, place them amongst the hardest to reach populations when information is disseminated.

Photo: WHO/ Blink Media - Lisette Poole

Undocumented migrants are often excluded from national health programmes or social protection schemes that could facilitate access to health and social services. Many do not seek health care, including for COVID-19, due to financial constraints or fear of deportation.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201218:

Uppsala Universitet 20-12- 08:

Researchers highlight major flaws in EU refugee policy till sidans topp

European refugee policy from 2015 onwards can be described as a failure, believe researchers working on the EU project RESPOND, which has studied the situation for refugees in 11 different EU Member States. Interviews with refugees and various societal stakeholders paint a bleak picture of the situation.

Hurried and not always legally certain legislative changes. Major issues on borders, where control has often be outsourced. Problems finding accommodation and a high risk of exploitation and violence.

These are just a few of the flaws highlighted by RESPOND, a three-year project that concluded on 30 November. The project's closing digital conference was attended by 170 delegates from various countries.

Over 500 refugees and 200 societal stakeholders have been interviewed. Researchers have also studied reports, policies and legal texts to create an image of the refugees' journeys from their countries of origin, across multiple borders en route to their new homelands.

"We had of course expected to find many difficulties during these journeys, but not to see that they were so problematic in every aspect, not least in terms of violence and exploitation," says Andreas Önver Cetrez, associate professor of psychology of religions and leader of the project.

New country, new challenges

Many newly arrived migrants have been travelling for a long time - as much as three years - and crossed multiple borders. In a survey of Syrian refugees, the majority of respondents had crossed three borders, while some had crossed up to ten. Others had undertaken a shorter and simpler journey.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201207:

ECRE 20-11-20:

Study on the implementation of border procedures reveals major flaws till sidans topp

Last week, ECRE's contribution to the implementation of asylum procedures at the border, has been published by the European Parliament Research Service (EPRS) which commissioned it. The entire European Implementation Assessment paper on border procedures contains three parts. Besides the in-house research conducted by the EPRS itself, there is also part on the legal assessment of Article 43 on border procedures carried out by Dr Galina Cornelisse and Dr Marcelle Reneman of the Free University of Amsterdam, and the comparative analysis on the application in practice of Article 43 of the Asylum procedure directive that was carried out by ECRE (p.145 and further).

The study carried out by ECRE covers seven countries: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Portugal. The study relies on desk research and a variety of sources including qualitative and quantitative information on national practices extracted from the Asylum Information Database (AIDA) managed by ECRE. National experts from the analysed countries further provided thorough and valuable feedback.

Member States' practice differs significantly when it comes to both the design and use of the border procedure, as allowed by the discretionary nature of Article 43 recast APD. However, similarities occur: whether applied at land, sea or air borders, border procedures involve a variety of authorities and they are invariably characterised by short deadlines for decision-making and for lodging appeals, a lack of information to (potential) applicants, and reduced accessibility for interpreters, NGOs and legal aid providers. This due to the locations where procedures are conducted and where applicants are (officially or de facto) detained. The evidence suggests a more restrictive approach to protection claims in border procedures compared to similar caseloads examined in regular procedures, and further suggests that significant protection gaps result from the unavailability or inadequacy of procedural guarantees.

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Rädda Barnen 20-12-04:

Rapport lyfter ensamkommandes röster: "Jag missar ju bara min tid liksom, mitt liv" till sidans topp

I Rädda Barnens aktuella rapport I väntan på livet, lyfts röster från ungdomar som kom ensamma som barn till Sverige under 2015-2016. Ofta efter en livsfarlig flykt. I rapporten skildras starka berättelser som visar på stora brister i stödet från samhället.

I rapporten beskrivs hur dessa ungdomar drabbats hårt av Sveriges bristande kapacitet att ta emot och hantera ett ökat antal asylärenden. Rädda Barnen har mött många av dessa barn och unga, och sett hur de fallit mellan stolarna. Kontrasten mellan vilket stöd som de kan få innan och efter 18-årsdagen, är mycket stor. På grund av detta har de hamnat i olika former av utsatthet, där deras tillvaro i Sverige hänger på en skör tråd.

- Jag missar ju bara min tid liksom, mitt liv, säger Ali 19 år, som kom till Sverige 2015.

Ungdomarnas berättelser, tillsammans med erfarenheterna från professionella och ideella som mött ungdomarna i Rädda Barnens verksamheter, visar hur den så kallade gymnasielagens krav ofta ter sig orimliga att nå upp till.

- I våra verksamheter ser vi stora behov som grundar sig i psykisk ohälsa, konstanta flyttar, hemlöshet och en utbredd känsla av hopplöshet. Ett återvändande till ursprungslandet ses många gånger inte som ett alternativ, då det för de flesta innebär stora risker. Vi möter unga som förmedlar en stark vilja att vara en del av det svenska samhället; att studera och etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden, men framtiden för ungdomarna står fortfarande på spel, säger Maria Frisk, Sverigechef på Rädda Barnen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201124:

RFSL 20-11-19:

Hbtqi-asylsökande nekas asyl med otillåtna avslag till sidans topp

En ny rättsutredning från RFSL visar att hbtqi-asylärenden avslås med otillåtna motiveringar. Asylsökande förväntas dölja att de är hbtqi, transpersoners asylskäl missas och rättsosäkerheten är stor i hbtqi-asylärenden.

I RFSL:s rättsutredning har asylrättsjurist Aino Gröndahl granskat över 2000 enskilda beslut och domar i hbtqi-asylärenden från Migrationsverket och migrationsdomstolarna mellan åren 2012-2020.

Migrationsmyndigheterna ställer ett antal krav för att sökande ska göra trovärdigt och tillförlitligt sina hbtqi-asylskäl: Hen ska ha genomgått en inre process fram till insikt om sin sexuella läggning, könsidentitet eller sitt könsuttryck. Hen ska ha känt eller åtminstone kunna reflektera kring känslor av olikhet, stigma och skam. Ju mer tabu hbtqi är i hemlandet, desto mer krävs att sökande kan prata om det. Kravet är ologiskt och strider mot utlänningslagen. Den som tagit "för stora risker" anses inte trovärdig och får avslag. Detta baserar sig på fördomen att hbtqi-personer inte tar risker.

Kraven utgår från den felaktiga, stereotypa föreställningen att hbtqi-personer har universellt gemensamma erfarenheter som kan utredas och bedömas. Skyddsberättigade hbtqi-personer som inte har eller kan beskriva dessa erfarenheter anses inte trovärdiga, får avslag och utvisas. Kraven strider mot UNHCR:s riktlinjer, EU-rätten, EU-domstolens praxis, utlänningslagens förarbeten och Migrationsverkets eget rättsliga ställningstagande.

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Läs mer och hämta utredningen samt statistikbilaga (Extern länk)

Sveriges Radio Västmanland 20-11-23: Migrationsverket kräver bevis för sexuell läggning (Extern länk)

Sveriges Radio Västmanland 20-11-23: Migrationsverket välkomnar utredning om HBTQI-personers asylärenden (Extern länk)

Sveriges Radio Västmanland 20-11-23: Åsa Coenraads (M): Migrationsverket brister i kunskapen (Extern länk)

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RESPOND 20-11-21:

Horizon 2020 RESPOND Research project attests to ongoing governance failures till sidans topp

After three years of intense research on European migration and asylum governance in 11 European and non-European countries (Greece, Italy, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Sweden, UK, Poland, Iraq, Lebanon and Turkey), the final results of the EU financed research project "RESPOND" paint a gloomy picture of the European Union and member states' governance capacities and failures.

After the numbers of refugee-migrants increased in 2015, the research consortium of 14 partners observed that the EU and its member states are persistently in crisis mode. Given an on-going solid deadlock at the EU level blocking every substantive reform, the only solutions to the migration issue for the EU and its member states have become deterrence, restriction and return. The empirical insights of RESPOND substantiate existing findings, which pointed to increased securitization of the migration policy field leading to an enormous protection gap, the normalization of violence and a disregard by member states and EU actors (FRONTEX, EASO) of internationally and European enshrined human rights norms and the rule of law.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201023:

IOM 20-10-15:

IOM and the African union commission launch the first Africa migration report till sidans topp

African migration in the 21st Century takes place mainly by land, not by sea. African migrants' destinations are overwhelmingly not to Europe or North America, but to each other's countries.

Those are among the historic findings of the study, Africa Migration Report: Challenging the Narrative, released today (15 October) by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and the African Union Commission (AUC). The work is the first continent-specific report on migration and is being released during a virtual meeting bringing together policymakers, experts on migration and UN partner agencies. This inaugural edition attempts to unpack commonly held misperceptions about migration in the continent.

(...)

Globally, the salience of migration issues is getting higher on the policy agenda. Stories of desperate Africans on rickety boats trying to cross the Mediterranean to Europe or embarking on the perilous Eastern trek to the Gulf States have become mainstream. This trend distorts the public's understanding that most African migrants are moving across land borders, not across oceans.

Yet the narratives that characterize it are not always accurate, the joint report reveals. To ensure a better understanding of the complex phenomena that spur human mobility, and to reorient the narrative, the newly released Africa Migration Report takes a deep dive into the key issues and trends characterizing the continent's migration patterns.

In 2019, Africa was the youngest continent for international migrants with a median age of 30.9 years. According to the African Union, intra-African mobility numbers have never been higher, with international migration in Africa increasing from 13.3 million to 25.4 million migrants between 2008 and 2017. Meanwhile, according to IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), 80 per cent of Africans, when asked about migrating in 2017, said they have no interest in leaving the continent, nor of permanently relocating.

(...)

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Rädda Barnen 20-10-06:

Studie från tre världsdelar: flickor på flykt en särskilt utsatt grupp utan stöd och skydd till sidans topp

Ingen flicka eller flykt är den andre lik. Förutsättningar och berättelser skiljer sig åt, men alla flickor på flykt lever i en extra stor utsatthet men vågar trots det att lämna våld, hunger och brist på utbildning med stor målmedvetenhet. Tyvärr finns det få studier om flickor på flykt och därför släpper Rädda Barnen nu fyra omfattande rapporter och en podcast från tre olika världsdelar.

I fyra rapporter från tre olika världsdelar har Rädda Barnen undersökt hur flickor på flykt hade det i hemlandet, på flykt och i vissa fall när de anlänt till sin slutdestination. Flickornas berättelser pekar på såväl allvarliga rättighetskränkningar som en stark målmedvetenhet och förmåga att ta sig vidare.

Oavsett situation i hemlandet eller hur flykten har varit så får de flickor som får ett bra mottagande i mottagarlandet bättre förutsättningar, de gifter sig senare och får färre barn med högre utbildning och bättre välmående.

- Världens modigaste flickor är de på flykt, de som vågar lämna sitt hem och sin familj för att söka skydd, få utbildning eller bli mätta. Flickorna lever i en enorm otrygghet och utsätts för allvarliga risker under flykten. Genom att skydda och erbjuda bra mottagande kan vi ge dessa flickor ett bättre liv som även skapar bättre förutsättningar för nästa generation i det nya landet, säger Helena Thybell, generalsekreterare på Rädda Barnen.

Anledningar till att flickor väljer att fly skiljer sig åt. Flickor som lyckats fly från Venezuela till Colombia uppskattade allra mest att få tre mål mat om dagen. I hemlandet Venezuela led 28% av gravida kvinnor av akut undernäring. För flickor som lämnat Zambia och Mocambique till Sydafrika sökte majoriteten en bättre framtid med jobb eller utbildning. För många var våld i hemmet, eller andra former av könsrelaterat våld, brytpunkten som fick flickorna att packa väskan.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201002:

IOM 2020:

Migration in West and North Africa and across the Mediterranean till sidans topp

Trends, risks, development and governance

This edited volume provides comprehensive evidence on migration from and within West and North Africa and across the Mediterranean.

It highlights migrants' agency and contribution to transnational development, as well as the inequalities that shape migration and the risks that migrants are exposed to.

The volume is divided in four sections, dedicated to migration trends, risks, development and governance. The volume features contributions from different IOM offices, as well as from other international organisations, research institutions and civil society organisations.

It was prepared as part of the programme Safety, Support and Solutions on the Central Mediterranean Route, funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID).

Hämta rapporten (Extern länk)

Sveriges Radio Ekot 20-09-22: Fler migranter ger sig ut på Medelhavet (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200913:

Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies September 2020

The end of the right to seek asylum? COVID-19 and the future of refugee protection till sidans topp

Daniel Ghezelbash, Nikolas Feith Tan

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the institution of asylum, exacerbating longer term trends limiting the ability of asylum seekers to cross-borders to seek protection. As a result, the early months of 2020 saw an effective extinguishment of the right to seek asylum. This working paper examines how this played out in Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States. National and regional responses varied, with Australia and the United States effectively ending asylum seeking. In Europe, some states upheld the right to seek asylum by exempting asylum seekers from general border closures, while other countries used the crisis to suspend the right to seek asylum. Finally, this working paper explores strategies for restoring and protecting the right to seek asylum beyond the pandemic.

Hämta dokumentet (Extern länk)

Se även:

Michael R. Kenwick and Beth A. Simmons, Cambridge University Press 20-08-19: Pandemic Response as Border Politics (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200715:

Alarm Phone 20-07-06:

Also in the Central Mediterranean Sea: Black Lives Matter! till sidans topp

Alarm Phone Central Mediterranean Regional Analysis, 1 January - 30 June 2020

Over the past six months, January to June 2020, the Central Mediterranean Sea has continued to be a zone of violence, human rights abuses, disappearances and deaths, as well as a stage of struggles for freedom of movement, both by people fleeing Libya and by the Civil Fleet. The ongoing conflicts in Libya and attempts to further close European harbours to migrants have exacerbated the already dire conditions of people who are trying to escape torture camps and to reach Europe. Most recently, using the excuse of having to 'protect' from the Covid-19 virus, European authorities have reinforced its repressive border control industry through EU air surveillance, by engaging merchant vessels or ghost fleets in illegal push-backs, and by providing money and resources to strengthen the illegal operations of the so-called Libyan coastguards. Despite European attempts to militarise external borders, to deter people's movement and to facilitate the capture and detention of those crossing the sea, thousands of people have bravely managed to evade capture and to reach Europe, either autonomously or through the support of the Civil Fleet.

(...)

This analysis is organised into five sections:

+ A chronology of Alarm Phone experiences and important developments in the Central Mediterranean region over the past six months

+ An account of Malta's escalating border violence in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, focusing on Maltese 'ghost vessels' and 'offshore prisons'

+ A brief assessment of the newly launched Eunavfor operation IRINI

+ Case studies of rescues and push-backs by merchant vessels

+ An analysis of the situation in Tunisia which is often overlooked in discussions around the Central Mediterranean border struggles.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200523:

Frontiers in Sociology 20-03-13:

Accounts of migrants' and refugees' healthcare access across Europe till sidans topp

Policy makers', NGO, and healthcare workers' accounts of migrants' and refugees' healthcare access across Europe - Human rights and citizenship based claims

Hannah Bradby, Adele Lebano, Sarah Hamed, Alejandro Gil-Salmerķn, Estrella Durá-Ferrandis, Jorge Garcés-Ferrer, William Sherlaw, Iva Christova, Pania Karnaki, Dina Zota and Elena Riza on behalf of the MigHealthCare Consortium

/Authors from departments and centers in Sweden, Spain, France, Bulgaria, Greece/

Freely available healthcare, universally accessible to the population of citizens, is a key ideal for European welfare systems. As labor migration of the twentieth century gave way to the globalized streams of the twenty-first century, new challenges to fulfilling these ideals have emerged. The principle of freedom of movement, together with large-scale forced migration have led to large scale movements of people, making new demands on European healthcare systems which had previously been largely focused on meeting sedentary local populations' needs. Drawing on interviews with service providers working for NGOs and public healthcare systems and with policy makers across 10 European countries, this paper considers how forced migrants' healthcare needs are addressed by national health systems, with factors hindering access at organizational and individual level in particular focus. The ways in which refugees' and migrants' healthcare access is prevented are considered in terms of claims based on citizenship and on the human right to health and healthcare. Where claims based on citizenship are denied and there is no means of asserting the human right to health, migrants are caught in a new form of inequality.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200426:

Justitiedepartementet 20-04-16:

Tilläggsdirektiv till delegationen för migrationsstudier, Delmi till sidans topp

Förlängd tid för uppdraget

Regeringen beslutade den 21 november 2013 kommittédirektiv en delegation för migrationsstudier (dir. 2013:102). Enligt utredningens direktiv ska regeringen följa delegationens arbete och senast under 2017 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas därefter.

Regeringen beslutade den 19 januari 2017 i tilläggsdirektiv (dir. 2017:5) att förlänga utredningstiden och senast under 2020 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

Utredningstiden förlängs. Regeringen avser att senast under 2024 utreda hur delegationens verksamhet bör bedrivas och under 2025 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200410:

FRA 20-03-30:

Migrant children continue to face serious risks across Europe till sidans topp

In a year that marked 30 years of the United Nation's child rights convention, 2019 saw many migrant children in the EU with their rights under threat. The latest report from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights draws attention to the plight of migrant children as they enter and stay in the EU or return to their home countries.

The 'Children in migration in 2019' report looks at the migration situation in 2019. It pulls together the main issues identified in FRA's Quarterly Bulletins on migration in selected EU Member States.

In 2019, Member States apprehended over 140,000 migrants entering the EU unauthorised. About 33,000 were children. Over 5,000 were unaccompanied.

This exposes children to greater risk - the risk of violence, exploitation, trafficking and abuse.

The latest FRA report highlights the 10 main challenges migrant children face. These include:

1. The risk of death or injury when trying to enter the EU by sea or land.

2. Being stranded - In 2019, twice as many rescue vessels could not dock immediately compared to 2018. This left over 780 children stranded on board, often in bad weather and in poor health for over a week.

3. Being pushed back, sometimes violently, at the border without assessing whether they are at risk of persecution or danger. This contravenes international and EU law. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) estimate that authorities pushed back at least 1,230 children on the Western Balkan route.

4. Not enough space in reception centres for asylum-seeking children, particularly unaccompanied children with special protection needs. This applied to Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.

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Europarådet 20-03-27:

Final report on refugee and migrant children in Europe till sidans topp

Migration and refugees: Council of Europe presents achievements and sets out new objectives

In a report published today, the Council of Europe takes stock of achievements and sets out new objectives for protecting vulnerable migrants and refugees, including children.

"The Council of Europe will continue to play a key role in the protection and promotion of human rights of the most vulnerable, such as refugee and migrant children. Their protection is a long-term commitment", said Council of Europe Secretary General, Marija Pejcinovic Buric

The Special Representative on Migration and Refugees, Drahoslav Stefánek, presented the Final Report of the implementation of the Action Plan on protecting refugee and migrant children in Europe (2017-2019) to the Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers.

"We have largely attained the objectives through concrete actions, such as Committee of Ministers recommendations, practical guidance and sharing good practices. At the same time, several new activities have been carried out in the areas of alternatives to immigration detention, education, social inclusion, and human rights training courses. Other areas we need to explore are the rights of refugee and migrant women, border procedures and returns, but above all, there is a need to pursue a more positive narrative and a more constructive approach towards migrants and refugees", said the Special Representative.

In addition, the Action Plan implementation process identified a need for a direct dialogue with national migration authorities, which led to the creation of a network of focal points from the member states. The aim of the network is to exchange good practices and enhance co-operation between the different stakeholders, including facilitating the sharing of information on relevant Council of Europe activities in the field of migration.

Läs pressmeddelandet (Extern länk)

"Refugee and migrant children in Europe"- Final report on the implementation of the Action Plan 2017-2019 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Refugees International 20-03- 30:

Addressing the threat of the novel Coronavirus in humanitarian emergencies till sidans topp

Introduction

The world is gripped by a truly global public health emergency. From New York to Wuhan, attention and resources are being directed to fight the spread of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus (officially, SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the situation a pandemic.[1] Healthcare systems in even the most advanced countries are being overwhelmed. As the pandemic[2] spreads, the coronavirus will disproportionately impact the world's most vulnerable, among them refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced people (IDPs). These populations must be included in the global response to the virus. This is essential to protecting not only these communities, but societies at large.

The scale and speed of the pandemic underscore how deeply interconnected the world's populations are. Nevertheless, at precisely the moment when global solidarity and cooperation are essential, many nations are turning inward as they seek to protect their citizens. But a virus does not respect borders. Nor does it discriminate. A truly effective response, not to mention a morally correct one, also must not discriminate.

The world's more than 70 million forcibly displaced people-including refugees, asylum seekers, IDPs, and other forced migrants-are among the most vulnerable. Already, their displacement leaves them disadvantaged in many ways. The impact of the epidemic both exacerbates and is exacerbated by the conditions in which they live. A series of factors make them extremely vulnerable to the spread of the virus.

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Asylkommissionen 20-03-30:

Asylkommissionen välkomnar bidrag till antologi till sidans topp

Asylkommissionen planerar sin första bok, en antologi med bidrag om existerande forskning, rapporter från frivilligorganisationer och andra inslag. Vi tror att de olika perspektiven kan ge en djupare förståelse av samhällsutvecklingen.

Asylkommissionen är fortfarande i början av projektet att granska vad som hänt asylsökande i Sverige efter 2015, och vilka effekter det haft. Mycket forskning pågår. Vi kan inte redan nu komma med kommissionens slutsatser. Men samtidigt genomlever många människor konsekvenserna av den förändrade asylpolitiken just nu - medan politiker och media fokuserar på andra aspekter och hur antalet asylsökande skulle kunna minskas ytterligare.

Genom en antologi vill vi kommunicera redan existerande forskning och en del av de erfarenheter som gjorde att Asylkommissionen startade.

Många förslag till bidrag har kommit in, från forskare och från enskilda med egen erfarenhet eller andra specifika kunskaper. Men vi ser gärna fler förslag. Professor Anna Lundberg och docent Sabine Gruber, Linköpings Universitet, tillsammans med docent Torun Elsrud, Linnéuniversitetet, utgör redaktion och kommer att granska förslagen.

Deadline för abstracts för forskare och andra förslag till bidrag är den 15 april.

Artikeln med länk till inbjudan (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200324:

Asylkommissionen 20-03-13:

Letar du ämne till din masteruppsats? till sidans topp

Liksom förra terminen efterlyser Asylkommissionen masteruppsatser om asylprocessen!

Är du intresserad av asyl- och migrationsfrågor i en svensk kontext, och har du skrivit en uppsats om detta, eller planerar du ett uppsatsarbete? I så fall tror vi att du vill vara med och bidra till Asylkommissionen.

Asylkommissionens fullständiga namn är "Kommissionen för granskning av lagstiftning, lagtillämpning och rättssäkerhet för människor som sökt asyl i Sverige under perioden 2015-17". Det började som ett samarbete mellan Linköpings universitet och Flyktinggruppernas Riksråd, FARR. Idag samlar vi ett 50-tal experter varav några med egen erfarenhet av asylprocessen och många från civilsamhällets organisationer.

Bakgrunden till kommissionen är de senaste årens allt mer restriktiva flyktingpolitik som motiverats med omsorg om samhället men har fört med sig negativa konsekvenser i form av inhumana beslut, ökande hemlöshet, kriminalisering, psykisk ohälsa, familjesplittring och fler utvisningar med inslag av våld. Asylsökande har pekat på brister i rättssäkerheten men förändringarna har försvarats av ansvariga myndigheter och politiker.

Exempel på områden som Asylkommissionen har identifierat som särskilt angelägna att undersöka kritiskt rör lagförändringar och deras konsekvenser; Brister i asylmottagande; Ansvarsförskjutningar; Åldersuppskrivningar; Domstols-praxis mm. Det är viktigt att beakta etiska aspekter och riktlinjer på ditt universitet när du väljer ämne.

Sprid gärna denna information till studenter, universitetslärare eller forskare du tror skulle vara intresserade! Om du har frågor kontakta din handledare eller skriv till Asylkommissionen@ikos.liu.se!

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Arkiveringsdatum 200306:

Europarådet 20-02-10:

New study on gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement till sidans topp

On 10 February 2020, the Council of Europe published a new study on Gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement: Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention. The purpose of the publication is to support the implementation of these articles by providing policy makers, border and immigration officials and practitioners with practical advice including definitions, information and examples of gender-based violence that may be recognised as forms of persecution or other serious harm. It also illustrates how to ensure that a gender-sensitive interpretation is given to each of the convention grounds, what are the requirements of gender-sensitive reception procedures and gender-sensitive practice and procedure in respect of refugee status determination, and applications for other forms of international protection. It discusses the additional protection of the non-refoulement principle and concludes with a checklist which summarises the requirements of the provisions affecting asylum-seeking and refugee women in Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention. The checklist should help in designing and implementing measures in law, policy and practice to implement Articles 60 and 61. This publication belongs to a series of in-depth analyses of articles of the Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention).

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The World Bank 20-02-18:

Understanding decisions made on asylum applications in host countries till sidans topp

Ismael Issifou

Abstract

Millions of forcibly displaced people apply for asylum every year facing uncertain outcomes. What can explain cross-country heterogeneity in these outcomes? This study provides estimates of the determinants of asylum admission policies in host countries using a bilateral panel data set covering 201 origin and 113 destination countries between 2000 and 2017. The paper shows that in high-income countries, unlike in low- and middle-income countries, approval policies are influenced by political factors such as political polarization and electoral periods. The study also finds that macroeconomic factors, labor market outcomes, and public spending can play an important role in final decisions on asylum.

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Amnesty International 20-02-27:

Americas: States cracked down on asylum and the right to protest in 2019 till sidans topp

As millions took to the streets to protest rampant violence, inequality, corruption and impunity, or were forced to flee their countries in search of safety, states across the Americas clamped down on the rights to protest and seek asylum last year with flagrant disregard for their obligations under domestic and international law, Amnesty International said today upon launching its annual report for the region.

"2019 brought a renewed assault on human rights across much of the Americas, with intolerant and increasingly authoritarian leaders turning to ever-more violent tactics to stop people from protesting or seeking safety in another country. But we also saw young people stand up and demand change all over the region, triggering broader demonstrations on a massive scale. Their bravery in the face of vicious state repression gives us hope and shows that future generations will not be bullied," said Erika Guevara-Rosas, Americas director at Amnesty International.

"With yet more social unrest, political instability and environmental destruction looming over the region in 2020, the fight for human rights is as urgent as ever. And make no mistake, the political leaders who preach hate and division in a bid to demonize and undermine the rights of others will find themselves on the wrong side of history."

Protest movements, often led by young people, rose up to demand accountability and respect for human rights in countries like Venezuela, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Haiti, Chile and Colombia last year, but authorities typically responded with repressive and often increasingly militarized tactics instead of establishing mechanisms to promote dialogue and address the protesters' concerns.

(...)

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Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 20-03-04:

Children of the crisis: Ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth till sidans topp

Volume 46, 2020, Issue 2. Articles:

Children of the crisis: ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth in and en route to Europe. Annika Lems, Kathrin Oester & Sabine Strasser

Family project or individual choice? Exploring agency in young Eritreans' migration. Milena Belloni

The border event in the everyday: hope and constraints in the lives of young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Turkey. Sabine Strasser & Eda Elif Tibet

Children, adults or both? Negotiating adult minors and interests in a state care facility in Malta. Laura Otto

Across the threshold: negotiations of deservingness among unaccompanied young refugees in Sweden. Ulrika Wernesjö

Being inside out: the slippery slope between inclusion and exclusion in a Swiss educational project for unaccompanied refugee youth. Annika Lems

The limits of freedom: migration as a space of freedom and loneliness among Afghan unaccompanied migrant youth. Francesca Meloni

Transitions, capabilities and wellbeing: how Afghan unaccompanied young people experience becoming 'adult' in the UK and beyond. Elaine Chase

Methodological innovations, reflections and dilemmas: the hidden sides of research with migrant young people classified as unaccompanied minors. Elaine Chase, Laura Otto, Milena Belloni, Annika Lems & Ulrika Wernesjö

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Arkiveringsdatum 200208:

Danish Refugee Council, Norwegian Refugee Council mfl 20-01- 31:

Unprepared for (re)integration: Lessons learned from refugee returns to urban areas till sidans topp

Lessons learned from Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria

Report from Danish Refugee Council, Norwegian Refugee Council, International Rescue Committee, Samuel Hall, Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat

This study informs programming and policies in relation to refugee returns and, specifically, with regards to their (re)integration within urban areas, with a focus on Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria. While millions of refugees return to poverty, conflict and insecurity in all three settings, a tunnel focus on returns rather than on (re)integration has limited value for long-term planning. Stakeholders, including communities and returnees themselves, have been unprepared for what happens post-return.

In this context, the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) have drawn lessons from recent responses to refugee movements in Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria. Return trends have shifted in each of these contexts in recent years, driven by changing governmental priorities and conditions in host and origin countries. Although return contexts are diverse, some patterns are common, and refugees' own priorities and actions need to be considered in order to build the way for effective programming.

Objectives and methodology

The main report supports the thinking and planning around (re)integration by examining patterns of return and identifying obstacles, including operational, policy and knowledge gaps, to support better preparedness for (re)integration. It asks: "How can returnees, receiving communities, governments and organisations be more effectively prepared so as to lay the ground and work towards sustainable (re)integration? What has worked and what could work?"

(...)

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Frontex 20-02-06:

Frontex to provide border security expertise to Commission's research projects till sidans topp

Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, will provide its expertise in the area of border security research and innovation to assist the European Commission in supporting the development of state of the art technology for the border and coast guard community.

The collaboration between Frontex and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs will be based on Terms of Reference (ToR) that were signed yesterday by Frontex Executive Director Fabrice Leggeri and the Director General of Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs Monique Pariat.

EU-funded security research enables innovation in technologies and knowledge that is crucial for developing capabilities to address today's security challenges and to anticipate tomorrow's threats and opportunities.

Over the last 15 years, Frontex has developed expertise in the area of integrated border management research and innovation, which will allow the Agency to assist the Commission in evaluating research and innovation results to improve border security, including improved maritime border protection.

Frontex will contribute to the effective implementation of relevant parts of the Framework Programmes for Research and Innovation (Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe).The Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2018-2020 for Secure Societies plans an indicative budget of EUR 118 million of EU grants for research projects under research topics in the area of "Border and External Security".

Within the framework of this ToR, Frontex, will:

+ identify research activities addressing capability gaps in the areas of surveillance, situational awareness, biometrics, cybersecurity and information availability and exchange;

+ translate these gaps into requirements for solutions to be researched;

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Arkiveringsdatum 200125:

Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung December 2019:

Solidarity Cities in Europe till sidans topp

Stefanie Kron, Wenke Christoph mfl

Across Europe, urban solidarity movements are gaining momentum. Under the label of 'Welcoming Cities', 'Cities of Refuge' or 'Solidarity Cities', civil society groups, local politicians and city administrations are defying the growing restrictions of border regimes and migration policies on the European and national level. At the same time, these movements develop specific municipal policies for the protection or social inclusion of people with precarious status. Finally, they act as discursive counterweights to the rise of right-wing parties across Europe who are pushing for the fortification of borders and the criminalisation of migrants.

The 'Sanctuary City' concept has existed in North America since the 1980s, when hundreds of thousands of refugees from the war-torn countries of Central America sought protection from persecution in the USA and Canada. The US governmentunder Ronald Reagan granted asylum to only a handful of these war refugees, leading to increased pressure from religious organisations and migrant initiatives on local politicians and authorities to protect refugees from deportation and to improve their legal status. San Francisco was the first city to pass a 'City of Sanctuary' resolution in 1985, followed by a decree in 1989 which prohibited municipal authorities and police from cooperating with national authorities in the identification, persecution, incarceration and deportation of non-status migrants (Bauder 2016: 176, Lippert/Rehaag 2013). This Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) policy spread quickly across North America. To date, over 500 American and Canadian cities and municipalities, as well as some US states, have joined the Sanctuary movement.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200107:

Global Initiative 19-11-29:

Economy of Detention in Libya: Understanding the players and the business models till sidans topp

The overall objective of this study is to understand the political economy of migrant detention in Libya, in both the official and non-official detention systems. The study was launched in October 2018 and the report was finalized in April 2019. The study was conducted by means of a qualitative approach, based on primary field research spanning four research modules: literature review, initial screening of detention centres in Libya, primary field interviews with migrants and with a variety of key informants (armed groups, authorities, smugglers, detention-centre staff, programme implementers). The methodology was route focused and, as such, involved interviews in four countries: Niger, Libya, Italy and Malta. A total of 85 key informant interviews were conducted and 75 in-depth interviews were conducted with migrants (160 in-depth interviews in total).

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Cadmus december yyy 2019:

Sea rescue NGOs: a pull factor of irregular migration? till sidans topp

Policy Briefs, 2019/22, Migration Policy Centre

Eugenio Cusumano, Matteo Villa

The argument that maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) operations act as a 'pull factor' of irregular seaborne migration has become commonplace during the Mediterranean 'refugee crisis'. This claim has frequently been used to criticize humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) conducting SAR off the coast of Libya, which are considered to provide "an incentive for human smugglers to arrange departures" (Italian Senate 2017: 9). In this policy brief, we scrutinise this argument by examining monthly migratory flows from Libya to Italy between 2014 and October 2019. We find no relationship between the presence of NGOs at sea and the number of migrants leaving Libyan shores. Although more data and further research are needed, the results of our analysis call into question the claim that non-governmental SAR operations are a pull factor of irregular migration across the Mediterranean sea.

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Malmö Universitet 19-12-12:

Flyktingars vittnesmål i Grekland synliggör osynliga gränser till sidans topp

Nyligen skärpte Greklands regering sina regler för asyl. Hårdare gränskontroll och snabbare deportationer är resultatet. En ny avhandling visar dock att Medelhavet inte är den enda gräns som flyktingarna måste passera.

Genom en gummibåt över Medelhavet hoppas många flyktingar passera gränsen till ett nytt liv i Europa. Men Ioanna Wagner Tsoni som på plats i Aten tagit del av flyktingars berättelser om hur de kom dit och varför ser hur gränskontrollen fortsatt även inne i huvudstaden.

- Gränser handlar om vilka vi är - eller vad våra dokument och vår biometriska data säger om oss. Det handlar också om var vi är i platsen, samhället och tiden, och hur dessa egenskaper uppträder i våra möten med andra, säger Ioanna Wagner Tsoni, som betonar att dessa gränser blir närmast osynliga för de priviligierade.

Osynliga gränser i staden

Gränser upprätthålls i vardagen genom möten mellan olika människor, visar Ioanna Wagner Tsoni i sin avhandling. Ett annat exempel är hudfärg. Hur du blir bemött beror både på vilken uppfattad hudfärg du har och vilket sammanhang du befinner dig i.

- En person berättade för mig att han tyckte om att ta på sig sina bästa kläder och ta en expressbuss till Atens finare förorter. Här kände han sig säker. Trots att han var svart skulle han här bli behandlad som en turist, kanske en amerikansk eller nordeuropeisk svart person, snarare än att som i centrala Aten omedelbart bli märkt som "illegal invandrare", säger Ioanna Wagner Tsoni.

Tydliga gränser finns även mellan turister och flyktingar. På ön Lesbos ville ingen att turisterna på den populära charterdestinationen skulle behöva fundera på öns många flyktingläger. Så även där fanns det en tydlig gräns vid den gata som gick mellan den lokala flygplatsen och den smala stranden där flyktingarnas gummibåtar anlände.

Tuffa tag blev svaret

(...)

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Global Detention Project 19-12-18:

Special investigation into the uses of electronic media in today's migration journeys till sidans topp

Physical Fences and Digital Divides: Final Report of the Global Detention Project

The "refugee crisis" helped spur a "tech turn" in how people travel across borders and how governments and others respond to these movements. Everyone from civil society organisations-including the Global Detention Project-and individual activists to humanitarian technologists, government officials, and international bureaucrats have experimented with social media and other new forms of digital technology to assist, prevent or otherwise influence the movements of people across borders. This GDP Special Report documents the trajectory and impact of these developments, exploring key new tools that have emerged in recent years, the uses of these tools by people on the move based on on-the ground reporting from key hotspots in the Mediterranean region, and the lessons we should learn as some of the early excitement and promise of digital humanitarianism have begun to fade. Smartphones, social media platforms, and other tech tools are today "migrant essentials" that can assist people in making life-saving decisions and bring public attention to abuses that migrants and refugees face as they confront the world's increasingly militarised borders. But they can also be exploited by unscrupulous actors in harmful ways and have unintended consequences. What lessons should we draw from this "tech turn"? In what ways can social media and other digital tools be used to reduce harms suffered by migrants and refugees? And is there a future for digital humanitarianism?

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Arkiveringsdatum 191129:

European University Institute November 2019:

Sea rescue NGOs : a pull factor of irregular migration? till sidans topp

The argument that maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) operations act as a 'pull factor' of irregular seaborne migration has become commonplace during the Mediterranean 'refugee crisis'. This claim has frequently been used to criticize humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) conducting SAR off the coast of Libya, which are considered to provide "an incentive for human smugglers to arrange departures" (Italian Senate 2017: 9). In this policy brief, we scrutinise this argument by examining monthly migratory flows from Libya to Italy between 2014 and October 2019. We find no relationship between the presence of NGOs at sea and the number of migrants leaving Libyan shores. Although more data and further research are needed, the results of our analysis call into question the claim that non-governmental SAR operations are a pull factor of irregular migration across the Mediterranean sea.

Hämta rapporten (Extern länk)

ECRE 19-11-22: New research demonstrates that Search and Rescue is not a pull factor (Extern länk)

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IOM 19-11-27:

World Migration Report 2020 Launched till sidans topp

In a global media environment highly interested in the issue of migration, the need for verified, evidence-based analysis on this defining issue of our time has never been more urgent. As the UN-related agency responsible for migration, it has long been IOM's imperative to promote a balanced understanding of migration across the world.

Launched today (27/11) at the 2019 IOM Council meeting by IOM Director General, Antķnio Vitorino, the latest edition of its flagship publication, the World Migration Report 2020 (WMR 2020), continues the organization's commitment to providing information on migration that is well-researched, rigorous and accessible.

"IOM has an obligation to demystify the complexity and diversity of human mobility," Director General Vitorino told representatives of IOM's member states.

"As this report shows, we have a continuously growing and improving body of data and information that can help us 'make better sense' of the basic features of migration in increasingly uncertain times," he said.

First published 20 years ago, this tenth edition in the World Migration Report series provides the latest data and information on migration as well as analysis of complex and emerging migration issues. WMR 2018 was downloaded over 400,000 times.

Topics covered in the report include human mobility and environmental change, migrants' contributions in an era of disinformation, children and unsafe migration, migration and health (among others), which are not only timely, but are also highly relevant for both specialist and general audiences.

(...)

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Centre Delas 19-11-27:

Guarding the Fortress. Frontex role in the militarisation of migratory flows in the EU till sidans topp

The new report "Guarding the Fortress: the role of Frontex in the militarization and securitization of migratory flows in the European Union" intends to study and analyze the context in which the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex, is developed and implemented in the European Union, as well as its operation, mechanisms and main operations carried out. The research addresses the context that is built with respect to security policies in the EU, and specifically with regard to border and migration policy. As well as, the development of Frontex in this context.

The report analyzes the role that Frontex has in helping to build walls around the European Union, building what is called the "Europe Fortress", through maritime, area and land operations that criminalize people who have to flee their homes for force, whether from war or economic inequality. It is in this context that migratory flows are approached as a threat, so that they are approached with the same instruments as border crimes.

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Arkiveringsdatum 191120:

ECRE 19-10-31:

UNDP: Stark personal and socio-economic implications of lack of legal pathways till sidans topp

The report "Scaling Fences: Voices of Irregular African Migrants to Europe" released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) focuses on development related migration through irregular routes. The report concludes that migration is "a reverberation of development progress" and that the lack of legal routes has "stark personal and socio-economic Implications".

The report is based on statements from 1970 individuals from 39 African countries who have migrated through irregular routes and "whose primary motivation, in their own words, was not humanitarian or protection-related in nature". The report establishes that the people travelling are "relatively better off than their peers" in terms of income and education, yet 50 per cent do not earn enough to get by in their home countries. While the segment interviewed for the report has benefited from economic development in Africa over the last decades this process is "not fast enough and with gains that are uneven and limiting" and in fact fuels aspirations of social change and enables migration.

For the majority the irregular journey is a calculated risk, with just two per cent reporting that the greater awareness of the risks of irregular migration would have affected their choice to leave. The majority chose to move based on lack of opportunities and social exclusion at home particularly amongst the youth paired with a hope of fulfilling economic and social aspirations for them and their families. 78 per cent of those who were earning were sending money home.

The lack of legal pathways means that migrants are absorbed into an irregular job market including by otherwise regular businesses in Europe. A majority of those employed in Europe are earning wages "well below their host country's minimum-wage threshold", which exposes them to other "types of insecurity associated with work - further highlighting the exploitation contingent on their irregular status".

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Arkiveringsdatum 191025:

Asylkommissionen oktober 2019:

Ska du skriva uppsats? till sidans topp

Är du masterstudent och är intresserad av asyl- och migrationsfrågor i en svensk kontext, och planerar ett uppsatsarbete? I så fall tror vi att du vill vara med och bidra till Asylkommissionen.

Exempel på områden som Asylkommissionen har identifierat som särskilt angelägna att undersöka kritiskt rör lagförändringar och deras konsekvenser; Brister i asylmottagande; Ansvarsförskjutningar; Åldersuppskrivningar; Domstols-praxis mm. Det är viktigt att beakta etiska aspekter och riktlinjer på ditt universitet när du väljer ämne.

Om du har frågor kontakta din handledare eller skriv till Asylkommissionen@isv.liu.se

Facebook-event: Ladda ner affisch till studenter (Extern länk)

Ladda ner lista över ämnesförslag (Extern länk)

Asylkommissionens webbsida (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 191017:

UNHCR 19-10- 14:

European States urged to do more to protect and support child refugees and migrants till sidans topp

European States must step up their efforts to protect child refugees and migrants who have endured not only difficult and dangerous journeys but continue to face risks and hardship once in Europe, including unsafe accommodation, being incorrectly registered as adults, and a lack of appropriate care, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has urged.

UNHCR's latest Desperate Journeys report, published today, notes that from January to September 2019, some 80,800 people arrived in Europe via Mediterranean routes - down from 102,700 in the same period of 2018. Of those who arrived, more than a quarter were children, many travelling without their parents.

"These children may have fled conflict, lost family members, been away from home for months, even years, with some enduring horrific abuses during their journeys, but their suffering doesn't stop at the border," said Pascale Moreau, Director of UNHCR's Europe Bureau. "Across Europe, unaccompanied children in particular are frequently housed in large centres with minimal oversight, exposing them to further abuse, violence and psychological distress and increasing the risk that they will move on or disappear."

Greece has received the majority of arrivals across the Mediterranean region this year - more than Spain, Italy, Malta, and Cyprus combined. So far, more than 12,900 children have arrived in Greece by sea, including almost 2,100 unaccompanied or separated children, many of them from Afghanistan, Syria and other countries characterized by conflict and violence. Conditions in overcrowded and unsanitary reception centres on the Greek Aegean islands are hugely concerning.

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Läs mer och hämta rapporten: Desperate Journeys - January-September 2019 (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190912:

UNHCR 19-08- 30:

Mer än hälften av världens flyktingbarn i skolåldern saknar tillgång till utbildning till sidans topp

Rapporten Stepping Up: Refugee Education in Crisis visar att det blir allt svårare att överbrygga utbildningshindren i takt med att barnen blir äldre; endast 63 procent av flyktingbarnen går i grundskolan jämfört med 91 procent i hela världen. 84 procent av ungdomarna i världen deltar i gymnasieutbildning, medan enbart 24 procent av flyktingarna får den möjligheten.

"Skolan är den plats där flyktingarna ges en andra chans", säger FN:s flyktingkommissarie Filippo Grandi. "Vi sviker flyktingarna när vi inte ger dem chansen att tillägna sig kunskaperna och färdigheterna de behöver för att kunna investera i sin framtid."

Den kraftiga minskningen av flyktingbarn som går i grund- och gymnasieskolan är en direkt följd av bristen på finansiellt stöd för flyktingutbildning. Därav uppmanar UNHCR regeringar, den privata sektorn, utbildningsorganisationer och givare att tillhandahålla finansiellt stöd för ett nytt initiativ i syfte att kickstarta gymnasieutbildning för flyktingar.

"Vi behöver investera i flyktingars utbildningsmöjligheter eller betala priset för en generation av barn som blir dömda att växa upp till ett liv där de inte kan vara självständiga, finna ett arbete och bidra till sina samhällen", tillade Grandi.

Gymnasieinitiativet kommer att inriktas på uppbyggnad och renovering av skolor, lärarutbildning samt finansiellt stöd till flyktingfamiljer för att kunna täcka sina barns skolkostnader.

Årets rapport manar också till att inkludera flyktingar i nationella utbildningssystem, istället för att fösas ihop i inofficiella parallellskolor, samt att låta dem följa en fastställd, formell läroplan genom hela förskolan, grundskolan och gymnasieskolan. På så vis kan de bli behöriga att söka till universitets- eller yrkeshögskoleutbildning.

(...)

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Sveriges Radio Ekot 19-08- 30: Många barn på flykt utan skolgång (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190801:

Comparative Migration Studies 19-07-23:

The relational dimension of externalizing border control: selective visa policies till sidans topp

Lena Laube

The paper traces the crucial role of visa policies in externalizing border control. Since the European Union has agreed upon a highly selective visa policy in 2001, most neighbouring countries are (newly) confronted with visa requirements for short-term travel. Because of this standardization of travel opportunities, visa-free travel to the European Union has become a rare and valuable political asset both for third country nationals and their governments. Consequently, visa liberalization became a major issue in bilateral negotiations with the EU over cooperation in migration management and is frequently used as an incentive by the EU institutions. However, the EU is not the only cooperating partner that strategically engages in border and migration diplomacy. As the case studies of Moldova, Morocco and Turkey show, all governments involved use issues of mobility regulation as a foreign policy tool, though with varying success in regard to visa liberalization.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190721:

Mixed Migration Centre / ReliefWeb 19-07-05:

Everyone's prey: Kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration till sidans topp

The Mixed Migration Centre's 4Mi project gathers hundreds of interviews with refugees and migrants on the move every month and has developed extensive data sets across several migratory routes. This data indicates that kidnapping and extortionate detention have become a normalised part of the criminal exploitation of refugees and migrants on the move.

This Briefing Paper draws on published research and 4Mi primary data to deliver, in the first section, some general and global observations and case studies. The second part of the paper offers a deeper exploration of experiences from the Horn of Africa, using interviews with and surveys of refugees and migrants from Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia to illustrate the role of kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration flows along three routes out of the region.

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Wiley Online Library 19-07-07:

Back in Time - A temporal autobiographical approach to Afghan return migration till sidans topp

Marieke van Houte

Abstract

Repatriation programmes for refugees and asylum seekers are based on the assumption that going 'home' is the most desirable thing to do to restore the social order that was disrupted by conflict. Yet the often?limited success of these programmes as migration management solutions, shown in poor reintegration results and re?emigration, shows that there is a need for a better understanding of the lived experiences of (return) migrants. This article studies Afghan managed and "spontaneous" return migrants from Europe through an innovative temporal autobiographical approach, using both verbal and creative participatory narrative methods. I find that some migration movements were experienced as disruptive, while others were not, and that return sometimes meant a return to a previous life, sometimes a continuation, and sometimes the start of something new. I conclude that migration management programmes aimed towards "durable solutions" and the wellbeing of returnees should enable rather than constrain post?return mobility.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190703:

FRA 19-06-25:

FRA report calls for 'zero tolerance' of severe labour exploitation till sidans topp

FRA research published today highlights the urgent need for European governments to do more to tackle severe labour exploitation in firms, factories and farms across the EU. First-hand interviews with hundreds of exploited workers reveal the illegal practices in sectors including agriculture, construction, domestic work, hospitality, manufacturing and transport.

Many exploited workers are often invisible. But the workers' perspectives in FRA's report 'Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU' show how their exploitation contributes to the supply chains of the everyday goods and services we take for granted - from the food on our plates, to the shirts on our backs.

The report reveals that over half of the workers found their jobs by word of mouth but ended up in 'concentration camp conditions' where 'they keep us like dogs, like slaves'.

FRA researchers found that some of the EU's exploited migrant workers are:

+ paid as little as ¤5-a-day;

+ forced to pay debts to traffickers before earning a cent;

+ working 92-hour, seven-day weeks, with no holiday or time off;

+ sleeping in shipping containers, with no water or electricity;

+ monitored on CCTV 24/7 by bosses;

+ subjected to beatings, verbal abuse and threats of further violence;

+ given no protective clothing to work with hazardous chemicals;

+ face sexual and gender-based violence or forced into moving drugs;

+ threatened of dismissal and deportation when they ask for their wages.

The report outlines 13 actions for EU institutions and Member States to end exploitation:

End fraudulent or deceptive recruitment practices.

(...)

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Comparative Migration Studies 19-06-27:

Lost in limbo? Navigating practices of appropriation of non-deportable refugees till sidans topp

Sarah Nimführ Buba Sesay

Malta, an island-state, limits the mobility of non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers who want to leave due to the lived consequences of disintegration. Stripped of any legal entitlements non-deportable refugees only have restricted access to the job market, basic services, and health care. They have no formal legal status whilst their presence and stay are known by the immigration authorities. However, although non-deportability restricts refugees' mobility, they find ways to navigate the system governing their physical and social immobilities.

Based on (auto-)ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Malta and Italy, non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers' lived experiences of first reception in Malta and migrating to Italy are illuminated. While enacting their denied right of mobility, new challenges reveal themselves, resulting in a life in limbo that continues even after they leave Malta. Through the conceptual lens of the 'perspective of migration' we consider the making and unmaking of refugees' (im)mobilities. In doing so, we pursue a three-stage approach. First, we shed light on produced immobilities while in Malta. Second, we explore refugees' practices of appropriation of mobility and third, we turn to new possibilities and challenges they face after a secondary movement to Italy. From a micro-analytical perspective, we examine how non-deportable refugees navigate the system governing their social and physical (im)mobilities. Practices of resistance and conciliation are illustrated.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

Springer Link 19-05-03:

Exploring the link between irregular migration and asylum: the case of Italy till sidans topp

Daniela Ghio, Gian Carlo Blangiardo

Many asylum seekers crossed European borders in an irregular manner during the last 2 years and completed their asylum procedure with a negative decision. Based on the limited number of effective orders to leave, it may be argued that a majority of rejected asylum seekers are de-facto staying in the European Union.

This paper aims to investigate the nexus between irregular migration and asylum. The analysis focuses on the case of Italy adopting a residual method. The amount of asylum seekers, who have the right of residence in Italy, is subtracted from the number of immigrants who entered Italian borders in an irregular manner from 2015 to 2017: the remainder amount provides an estimation of irregular immigrants generated by the failure of asylum procedure. A short-term migration scenario is settled for 2018 giving empirical-based insights to quantify irregular migrants who are likely to stay in Italy at the beginning of 2019.

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European Migration Network May 2019:

Annual Report on Migration and Asylum 2018 till sidans topp

Ur innehållsförteckningen:

+ Legal migration and mobility

+ International protection including asylum

+ Unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable groups

+ Integration

+ Citizenship and statelessness

+ Borders, visa and Schengen

+ Irregular migration including migrant smuggling

+ Trafficking in human beings

+ Return and readmission

EMN årsrapporter (Extern länk)

Läs eller hämta årsrapporten 2018 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, Sveriges Radio, SvT, andra svenska media via Nyhetsfilter och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media till exempel via Are You Syrious och Rights in Exile, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, Statewatch och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Asylrättscentrum, Svenska Amnesty, FARR och #vistårinteut samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

Bevakning: Hjalte Lagercrantz och Sanna Vestin. Sammanställning: Sanna Vestin. Asylnytt är ett ideellt projekt. Sponsring avser prenumerationsavgifter. Tips emottages tacksamt.