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Fridh advokatbyrå

Sponsrad av Fridh Advokatbyrå

ARKIV:

Nya regler och lagförslag

Flyktinggrupper, landpraxis

Gränser: passage och hinder

Mottagande av asylsökande

Asylutredning och procedur

Skäl för och emot tillstånd

Tvång, hot och deportationer

Papperslösa, gömda, utvisade

Stöd och solidaritet

EU:s flykting- och gränspolitik

Allmänt om migration, statistik

Integration och uppföljning

Debatt och partipolitik

Kultur, personer, diverse

Flyktinggruppernas Riksråd, FARR

menybox Asylnytt startsida Praxisnotiser Kalender FARR:s hemsida

Asylnytt - Arkiv

EU:s flykting- och gränspolitik

CEAS och "den nya migrations- och asylpakten"

Information från myndigheter och organisationer

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Arkiveringsdatum 211231:

Europeiska unionens råd 21-12-09:

Migrations- och asylpakten: Rådet antar förordning om EU:s asylbyrå till sidans topp

Rådet har antagit en förordning om inrättande av EU:s asylbyrå. Förordningen syftar till att förbättra tillämpningen av asylpolitiken inom EU genom att omvandla det befintliga Europeiska stödkontoret för asylfrågor (Easo) till en fullfjädrad byrå. Asylbyrån ska ansvara för att förbättra det gemensamma europeiska asylsystemets funktion genom att tillhandahålla ökat operativt och tekniskt stöd till medlemsländerna och genom att bidra till en mer enhetlig bedömning av ansökningar om internationellt skydd.

Förordningen om EU:s asylbyrå stärker Easos nuvarande mandat och underlättar utplaceringen av experter till medlemsländer som har begärt operativt stöd. Den nya lagstiftningen ökar byråns stöd till samarbete mellan EU-länder och tredjeländer och bidrar därmed också till solidariteten mellan medlemsländer och EU:s övergripande yttre dimension. Den tar också hänsyn till att diskussioner om en ny migrations- och asylpakt pågår och skjuter upp tillämpningsdatumet för övervakningsmekanismen till ett senare skede.

Bakgrund

Som en del av de förslag om migrations- och asylpakten som lades fram i september 2020 vidhöll EU-kommissionen sitt förslag från 2016 om förordningen om EU:s asylbyrå, och diskussionerna om den återupptogs. Rådets ordförandeskap och Europaparlamentet nådde en preliminär överenskommelse den 29 juni 2021. Parlamentet antog formellt förordningen den 11 november 2021.

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RIF / Statewatch 21-12-16:

Member states against a search and rescue "solidarity mechanism" till sidans topp

The vast majority of member states are opposed to a separate "solidarity mechanism" for people rescued at sea under the proposed Asylum and Migration Management Regulation. The proposal foresees this solidarity consisting of relocation or "capacity building". Some states would like to be able to offer "solidarity" in other ways - for example, Austria proposes support for externalisation measures as an alternative option to relocation of people rescued at sea.

It is evident that the proposed search and rescue (SAR) solidarity mechanism has little support. Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland and Slovakia are all outright opposed. A number of states argue that such a mechanism would be a "pull factor".

Austria also notes:

"AT welcomes that capacity building measures are part of solidarity contributions. However, there is a strong need for a more flexible approach. New and innovative solidarity contributions should be introduced, for example in the external dimension.

Therefore, Austria also welcomes the possible solidarity contributions as listed in footnote 1. However, these solidarity contributions should me mentioned in the text and not only in the respective footnote.

Furthermore, as mentioned above, there should be additional solidarity contributions such as "protection sponsorships" and the deduction of secondary migration movements. We refer to our comprehensive concept papers and previous information shared on these new and innovative concepts and stand ready to go into more details should there be further questions."

Artikeln med länkar till förslaget och kommentarer (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 211104:

Picum 21-10-18:

The EU migration pact: Questions and answers till sidans topp

The EU Pact on Migration and Asylum is a policy document that sets out the EU's agenda on migration for the years to come and a package of legislative proposals and recommendations. The Pact was presented by the European Commission in September 2020, with the purpose of "providing a comprehensive approach, bringing together policy in the areas of migration, asylum, integration and border management".

2. What's in the Pact?

The Pact includes five legislative proposals and four recommendations.

The legislative proposals, when adopted, will be binding EU law. They are:

+ Screening Regulation,

+ amended Asylum Procedures Regulation,

+ Crisis Regulation,

+ Asylum and Migration Management Regulation, and

+ amended Eurodac Regulation

Read our FAQ

The four recommendations are non-binding instruments adopted by the Commission, which address:

+ situations of crisis,

+ resettlement,

+ humanitarian admission and complementary pathways,

+ search and rescue operations by private vessels,

+ and facilitation of irregular entry" (as regulated by the so-called Facilitation Directive).

In addition, in April 2021, the European Commission adopted the EU Strategy on voluntary return and reintegration, which is envisaged by the Pact and foresees new EU actions to increase the number of voluntary returns.

3. What is the Commission proposing?

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 211018:

Picum 21-10-07:

The new EU action plan against migrant smuggling is failing migrants till sidans topp

The renewed EU action plan against migrant smuggling (2021-2025), presented by the European Commission at the end of September, risks exacerbating all the reasons why migrant smuggling happens in the first place.

At the EU level, migrant smuggling is defined as the facilitation of irregular entry, transit or stay into a country, and is often portrayed as a very lucrative business operated by powerful criminal networks that exploit migrants. In reality, research has shown time and time again that most people convicted for smuggling are in fact individuals, often helping friends and family, or migrants themselves trying to reach a certain country. We also know that people who want to reach Europe often have no other way to get here in a regular manner, and have to rely on other people who help them cross irregularly.

The Action Plan furthers these common misconceptions and uses them to justify measures that are actually counter-productive and harm the fundamental rights of migrants. Crucially, it fails to recognise that restrictive migration policies often incentivise smuggling activities: the more limited the regular pathways, the more people will be forced to rely on smugglers to access Europe.

In line with such biases, the Plan focuses on stemming irregular migration through stepping up returns, and on increasing pressure on third countries to prosecute and punish smugglers, with little consideration for basic safeguards.

No attention is paid to the root cause of smuggling, which evidence shows is linked to the lack of regular pathways to cross borders. International calls to create such regular pathways, also included in the Global Compact for Migration, are not heeded either.

Cooperation with and sanctions of third countries

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Picum 21-10-12:

Between asylum and return, space is closing for permits for undocumented migrants till sidans topp

Under international and EU law, there are several human rights reasons for which people who do not qualify for asylum cannot be deported. These include the principle of non-refoulement, the protection of family and private life, the best interests of the child and the prohibition of arbitrary detention. In addition, several circumstances that are outside of an individual's control can make deportation or return impossible.

For people who for whom return is impossible, or undesirable, many EU countries foresee residence permits that go outside the scope of international protection.

But in recent years, EU migration policies have been consistently focusing on increasing returns and closing access to these national residence permits. Such an approach rests on the mistaken belief that for undocumented people, the only option is to return - either by force or "voluntarily". The EU Pact on Migration and Asylum is built on this assumption and attempts to entrench it throughout the EU's immigration and asylum procedures.

Three recent proposals, the Recast Return Directive, the Screening Regulation and the amended Asylum Procedures Regulation go one step further in this direction, by assuming that all people who arrive or reside in the EU irregularly and whose asylum applications are unsuccessful should immediately return or be deported.

In reality, people continue to reside irregularly for a wide range of reasons, and may indeed have other grounds for residence than an asylum application. According to official estimates, every year 300,000 people cannot return from the EU for different reasons, including human rights and factual considerations.

60 national protection statuses exist in the EU, in addition to international protection (i.e. asylum and subsidiary protection). The Pact proposals would risk practically closing access to these and other national-level residence permits.

(...)

Hela uttalandet (Extern länk)

Briefing paper: Why is the Commission's push to link asylum and return procedures problematic and harmful? (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 211006:

EU-kommissionen 21-09-29:

Den nya pakten: lägesrapport och intensifierad kamp mot utnyttjande av migranter till sidans topp

Ett år efter antagandet av förslaget till en ny migrations- och asylpakt lägger kommissionen idag fram en rapport om migration och asyl.

Kommissionen antar också en förnyad EU-åtgärdsplan mot smuggling av migranter och ett meddelande om tillämpningen av direktivet om sanktioner mot arbetsgivare. Dessa initiativ utgör en del av den övergripande strategin för migration inom ramen för den nya migrations- och asylpakten och syftar till att förhindra organiserat utnyttjande av migranter och minska irreguljär migration, i överensstämmelse med den nya paktens mål att främja en hållbar och ordnad hantering av migration. Initiativen kommer att ta itu med både de fortsatta utmaningarna när det gäller att upplösa organiserade kriminella grupper och behovet av anpassning till nya utmaningar, bland annat statligt understödd smuggling av migranter, såsom situationen vid EU:s yttre gränser mot Belarus.

(...)

Rapport om migration och asyl: den nya pakten, ett år senare

Den rapport som läggs fram idag innehåller en bedömning av de framsteg som gjorts och den viktigaste utvecklingen inom migrations- och asylpolitiken under de senaste arton månaderna. Den kartlägger de viktigaste utmaningarna, belyser utsikterna till framsteg och anger de åtgärder som kommer att leda till en mer robust, livskraftig och rättvis migrations- och asylpolitik.

(...)

Hela pressmeddelandet (Extern länk)

Rapport om migration och asyl (Extern länk)

EU:s åtgärdsplan mot smuggling av migranter (2021-2025) (Extern länk)

Meddelande om tillämpningen av direktivet om sanktioner mot arbetsgivare (Extern länk)

Frågor och svar om "Kampen mot utnyttjande av migranter" (Extern länk)

Faktablad om smuggling av migranter och direktivet om sanktioner mot arbetsgivare (Extern länk)

Se även:

Statewatch 21-09-08: Member state comments on the proposed Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210904:

Statewatch 21-09-02:

Member states seek to increase detention periods in the Management Regulation till sidans topp

In July, the Slovenian Presidency of the Council circulated a number of compromise amendments to the Asylum and Migration Management Regulation following "detailed examination of proposals and concerns expressed by Member States," including a proposal to increase the time limit for detaining people subject to transfer proceedings from four to five weeks.

The proposed amendments also introduce the possibility of detaining asylum-seekers "when protection of national security or public order so requires".

"1. Delegations will find in Annex the Presidency compromise suggestions on the Asylum and Migration Management Regulation, covering Articles 28 to 44.

2. The suggestions for modifications of Part III of AMMR are based on detailed examination of proposals and concerns expressed by Member States. As the Presidency noted when the first group of Articles were presented, the compromise suggestions aim at making progress at the technical level, which could contribute to progress on the political issues at a later stage."

Hämta kompromissförslaget (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Mer från Statewatch (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210720:

ECRE / Heinrich Böll Stiftung July 2021:

Reception, detention and restriction of movement at EU external borders till sidans topp

By European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE)

The objective of this paper is to critically map the current EU legal framework for deprivation of liberty and restriction on freedom of movement of migrants and asylum seekers, as well as resulting practice, and finally, to discuss the 2020 legislative proposals for EU asylum reform. The discussion of the law and practice is put in the context of the international and EU human rights law framework governing deprivation of liberty and restriction on freedom of movement. After presenting the human rights framework, the paper first discusses how EU secondary legislation regulates detention and restriction on freedom of movement of third-country nationals, especially in the context of borders. Second, the paper looks at detention practices applied in the border context by several Member States. Third, against the background of current legal framework and practices, the paper discusses the 2020 legislative proposals as part of the Pact on Migration and Asylum, which introduce border procedures, namely the proposals for both the Screening Regulation and the Asylum Procedures Regulation to demonstrate their implications on movement restrictions and right to liberty at the EU external borders. The paper then presents a few concluding remarks and policy recommendations.

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Statewatch 21-07-13:

Presidency proposals on determining state responsible for an asylum claim till sidans topp

The Council of the EU is continuing discussions on the proposed Asylum and Migration Management Regulation. A paper circulated amongst member state delegations by the Slovenian Presidency on 6 July makes proposals on the sections of the text dealing with the criteria and mechanisms for determining the state responsible for an asylum application.

"3. The Presidency aims to continue examination of AMMR, starting with provisions of Part III - Criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible, in order to gain a broader picture of the whole proposal. In Annex to this document, delegations will find suggestions for modifications of Articles 1, 2 (points (a) to (q), (x) to (aa)) and 8 to 27, to be examined at the forthcoming informal meeting of the Asylum WP. Suggestions for modifications of Articles 28 to 44 will follow in due time.

4. The suggestions for modifications of Part III of AMMR are based on detailed examination of proposals and concerns stressed by Member States. As the Portuguese Presidency already noted in the presentation of its suggestions for modifications of the solidarity part of the AMMR at the informal meeting of the Asylum WP on 16 June 2021, there is a thin layer between technical and political issues. Considerations on a larger and more political scale are needed before addressing those issues in the AMMR text, taking into account the overall balance between responsibility and solidarity in the new Pact on Migration and Asylum as presented by the European Commission on 23 September 2020. Therefore, the Slovenian Presidency aims to continue the approach taken by the Portuguese Presidency. The attached compromise proposal thus aims at making progress at a technical level that the Presidency considers feasible for the time being, and which could contribute to the progress on the political issues at a later stage."

Läs mer och hämta dokumentet (Extern länk)

Se även:

Statewatch 21-06-23: Member states get to grips with "solidarity" proposals (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210701:

Europeiska Rådet 21-06-25:

Toppmötet 24-25 juni 2021 till sidans topp

EU-ländernas stats- och regeringschefer höll ett två dagar långt toppmöte i Bryssel.

(...)

Europeiska rådet diskuterade migrationssituationen längs de olika rutterna. De åtgärder som har vidtagits av EU och dess medlemsländer har fått ned de totala irreguljära strömmarna under de senaste åren, men utvecklingen längs med vissa rutter ger anledning till oro och kräver fortsatt vaksamhet och snabba åtgärder.

EU-ländernas ledare enades om att ömsesidigt gynnsamma partnerskap och ömsesidigt gynnsamt samarbete med ursprungs- och transitländer ska intensifieras för att förhindra förluster av människoliv och minska trycket på de europeiska gränserna, som en del av EU:s yttre åtgärder.

Denna allmänna strategi bör omfatta alla migrationsrutter och ska

+ vara pragmatisk, flexibel och skräddarsydd

+ utnyttja alla tillgängliga instrument och incitament, i enlighet med Team Europe-strategin

+ ske i nära samarbete med FN:s flyktingorgan (UNHCR) och Internationella organisationen för migration

Europeiska rådet uppmanade EU-kommissionen och EU:s utrikeschef att i samarbete med medlemsländerna

+ omedelbart förstärka de konkreta insatserna med prioriterade ursprungs- och transitländer

+ under hösten 2021 lägga fram handlingsplaner för prioriterade ursprungs- och transitländer

De uppmanade också kommissionen att på bästa möjliga sätt utnyttja minst 10 % av instrumentet Europa i världen (NDICI), och finansieringen inom ramen för andra relevanta instrument för insatser med anknytning till migration.

Europeiska rådet fördömde alla försök från länder utanför EU att utnyttja migranter för politiska syften.

Läs mer, hämta pressmeddelande mm (Extern länk)

Riksdagen 21-06-23: EU-nämndens uppteckningar inför detta rådsmöte (Extern länk)

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Statewatch 21-06-29:

Member state comments on the proposed Screening Regulation till sidans topp

Comments from 14 member states show significant divergences on the proposed Screening Regulation, which would entrench hotspot-like infrastructure at the EU's external borders "in the interest of the Member States and to the detriment of the exiled persons".

The document contains more-or-less detailed comments from Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Norway and Switzerland.

The proposal has faced heavy criticism from human rights and legal specialists. A recent report by the French Bar Association said:

"In contrast to the respect of the oldest law, the law of hospitality, the screening procedure procedure proposed by the European Commission would constitute an additional barrier in the the journey of the person wishing to travel to Europe and would be located before the the EU's external borders; it would be introduced solely in the interest of the Member States and to the detriment of the exiled persons."

Hämta detta och andra dokument (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210616:

EU-nämndens uppteckningar 21-06-04:

Lägesrapport till EU-nämnden om ny migrations- och asylpakt till sidans topp

/Utdrag:/

Nu går vi in på dagordningspunkt 18, Ny migrations- och asylpakt: lägesrapport och det fortsatta arbetet. Det är en informationspunkt. Önskar justitieministern kommentera något där?

Anf. 66 Justitie- och migrationsminister MORGAN JOHANSSON (S):

Ja, det finns ganska mycket som jag behöver säga här för att hålla EU- nämnden uppdaterad.

Punkten om den nya migrations- och asylpakten står uppsatt där som en rapport om framstegen. Vi förväntar oss därför en redogörelse från ordförandeskapet om vad som har åstadkommits när det gäller förslagen i pakten och hur man ser på vägen framåt när ordförandeskapet inom kort ska lämnas över till Slovenien.

Som jag informerade er om i början av mars och som vi informerade om i socialförsäkringsutskottet i går går det minst sagt trögt när det gäller att försöka få till stånd en övergripande politisk samsyn om de centrala frågorna i pakten om hur ansvarsfördelning och solidaritet ska lösas. Medlemsstaternas positioner är tyvärr i stort sett desamma som tidigare.

När det gäller själva förhandlingsläget har ordförandeskapet fokuserat på att i små steg försöka föra diskussionerna framåt på teknisk nivå i de här delarna.

Det har genomförts en första läsning av förslaget till asyl- och migra- tionshanteringsförordning. Det har ni informerats om tidigare. Flera medlemsstater anser att solidaritetsmekanismen i förslaget är för svagt utformad. Särskilt medlemsstaterna i de södra delarna av unionen vill se mer förutsägbarhet och starkare garantier för att medlemsstater under migrationstryck ska få det stöd de behöver. De vill till exempel att omfördelning av asylsökande ska vara tvingande.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210416:

European Parliament Think Tank 21-04-07;

The external dimension of the new pact: A focus on prevention and readmission till sidans topp

Written by Eric Pichon

The challenges posed by migration have put EU Member States' solidarity to the test. Responding to a European Council request, in September 2020 the European Commission proposed a new pact on migration and asylum, to reinforce solidarity among the Member States and to strengthen EU migration management and asylum procedures, while also making them more consistent. The proposed pact has an external aspect as well: building on current EU migration partnership frameworks, it aims to reinforce international partnerships with a view to ensuring effective returns, combating migrant smuggling more effectively, and developing legal migration channels.

In the context of migration, the EU's external policy has among its objectives to help third countries tackle the root causes of irregular migration or quests for asylum. The European Parliament often emphasises this point, while warning at the same time that security and migration management concerns should not result in diverting funds from core EU development cooperation objectives.

This is also a concern among academia and non-governmental organisations dealing with migration issues: several have pointed out that the Commission's proposals for the above-mentioned pact and the working document, recommendations and legislative proposals accompanying it put a lesser emphasis on pathways to legal migration than on measures aimed at incentivising third countries to retain possible irregular migrants or to accept returns.

Hämta dokumentet (Extern länk)

Lyssna till podcast (Extern länk)

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Statewatch 21-04-08:

Council legal service identifies problems with asylum and migration proposals till sidans topp

The Council Legal Service has been busy assessing measures proposed as part of the EU's Pact on Migration and Asylum and has identified a number of issues that need to be resolved if EU law is to be respected, according to a document obtained by Statewatch

The Legal Service's opinion, which was circulated in the Council on 19 February, examines the proposed Regulations on asylum and migration management, asylum procedure and situations of crisis and force majeure, but is not concerned with their substantive aspects - some of which, such as "border screening" and "return sponsorship", are highly controversial for their potential impact on fundamental rights.

Rather, the opinion looks at how the Commission's proposals mingle together a number of different legal bases in what it calls "hybrid acts" - covering the Schengen rules, the Dublin rules and treaty provisions - in ways that cause a number of problems for the EU legal order.

The opinion, which the Legal Service itself notes is "lengthy", concludes that:

"...the proposed new Pact on Migration and Asylum, insofar as it contains hybrid acts, should be adjusted so as to comply with the coherence of the Schengen and Dublin acquis, respectively, and to be made consistent with the relevant Protocols annexed to the Treaties. The Legal Service therefore advises that the components and provisions of the proposals identified in this opinion be correctly classified as development, respectively, of the Schengen acquis and the Dublin acquis and that they be included in Schengen and Dublin relevant instruments, as appropriate." (emphasis added)

(...)

Hela artikeln (Extern länk)

Uttalandet från the Legal Service, 21-02-19: The proposed new Pact on Migration and Asylum - "Variable geometry" - Schengen and Dublin acquis relevance of components of the proposed Pact (Extern länk)

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Picum 21-04-08:

Immigration detention and returns in the Pact: How we can correct course till sidans topp

Last September, the European Commission published the new European Pact on Migration and Asylum to reform the EU migration and asylum system. The Pact, which consists of five legislative proposals and four recommendations, heavily focuses on restricting access to Europe and on stepping up returns of people who are unable to get international protection.

To achieve these goals, the proposals reduce safeguards, set unrealistic timeframes to have fair procedures, and increase detention, including for children - with little or no consideration for human rights, well-being or inclusion. We believe Europe can do better - both for our societies and for the children and adults who are migrating - and have identified key issues that need to change in the different Pact proposals.

The 'Screening Regulation' introduces a 'pre-entry' procedure to identify people who crossed an external border without authorisation or who disembarked after a search and rescue operation. In short, this means detaining everyone, including children of any age, unaccompanied or with their families, for up to five days (ten in situations of crisis), during which the border personnel (read Frontex or national border guards) will decide whether people should undergo a vulnerability and health screening or not. What's more, undocumented people who are already on the EU territory could also be apprehended and detained for three days while they undergo the screening procedure - independent of how long they have been living on the territory and with no right to see a lawyer, appeal their detention or even inform their families.

(...)

Hela artikeln med länkar till Picums rekommendationer för olika delar av pakten (Extern länk)

Se även Picums analys:

More detention, fewer safeguards: How the new EU Pact on Migration and Asylum creates new loopholes to ignore human rights obligations (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210402:

Human Rights Watch 21-03-18:

Joint CSO letter on containment at external borders till sidans topp

Open letter:

Five years after the EU-Turkey Statement, European Civil Society demands an end to containment and deterrence at the EU's External Borders

The 18th of March 2021 will mark five years since the announcement of the "EU-Turkey Statement", under which EU and Turkish leaders agreed, among other things, that asylum seekers crossing from Turkey into Greek islands will be returned to Turkey. The statement led Greece to implement an array of laws and policies, designed to restrict the movement of asylum seekers, keep them in the designated "hotspots" on the islands (later named 'Reception and Identification Centres"), and facilitate their readmission to Turkey.

The policy of containment at borders is central to the new European Pact on Migration and Asylum, which introduces a "pre-entry phase consisting of screening and border procedures for asylum and return". According to the proposal, in this phase asylum seekers "shall not be authorised to enter the territory of the Member State".

Negotiations on these plans press on, irrespective of mounting evidence of the serious human rights consequences of this approach, including appalling reception conditions, containment, and violent border control practices. In Greece, resulting bottlenecks led to severe overcrowding, substandard reception conditions and delayed asylum procedures. Meanwhile, local communities who were initially welcoming are increasingly frustrated with the deteriorating situation and lack of EU solidarity.

(...)

Hela brevet (Extern länk)

ECRE Editorial 21-03-19: EU-Turkey deal 5 years on: Fundamentals remain unchanged (Extern länk)

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ASILE March 2021:

The EU Pact on Migration and Asylum in light of the UN Global Compact on Refugees till sidans topp

International experiences on containment and mobility and their impacts on trust and rights

Publication edited by CARRERA, Sergio; GEDDES, Andrew (eds.) / March 2021

In September 2020, the European Commission published what it described as a New Pact on Migration and Asylum that lays down a multi-annual policy agenda on issues that have been central to debate about the future of European integration. This book critically examines the new Pact as part of a Forum organized by the Horizon 2020 project ASILE - Global Asylum Governance and the EU's Role.

ASILE studies interactions between emerging international protection systems and the United Nations Global Compact for Refugees (UN GCR), with particular focus on the European Union's role and the UN GCR's implementation dynamics. It brings together a new international network of scholars from 13 institutions examining the characteristics of international and country specific asylum governance instruments and arrangements applicable to people seeking international protection. It studies the compatibility of these governance instruments' with international protection and human rights, and the UN GCR's call for global solidarity and responsibility sharing.

Hämta boken (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210314:

Refugee Rights Europe February 2021:

New pact on migration: Perspectives from the "other side" of the EU borders till sidans topp

At the end of September 2020, and after camp Moria on Lesvos burned down leaving over 13,000 people in an even more precarious situation than they were before, the European Commission (EC) introduced a proposal for the New Pact on Migration and Asylum. So far, the proposal has not been met with enthusiasm by neither member states or human rights organisations.

Based on first-hand field research interviews with civil society and other experts in the Balkan region, this report provides a unique perspective of the New Pact on Migration and Asylum from 'the other side' of the EU's borders.

Läs eller hämta rapporten (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Fler rapporter från Refugee Rights Europe (Extern länk)

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ECRE 21-03-02:

The management regulation: giving with one hand, taking back with the other till sidans topp

This Policy Note offers ECRE's assessment and recommendations in relation to the Regulation on asylum and migration management (RAMM)

In September 2020, the European Commission (the Commission) presented a New Pact on Migration and Asylum (the Pact). It aims to develop a comprehensive approach to external borders, asylum and return, the Schengen area of free movement and external policies. The Pact was presented along with a set of legislative proposals, including the Regulation on asylum and migration management (RAMM). The RAMM is the central proposal in the Pact and aims to provide a common framework to relaunch the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) and promote mutual trust between Member States.

There are also implications for relations with third countries: ECRE considers it unfortunate that the most important proposal on asylum in Europe starts with a section on responsibilities of non-EU countries. Unfortunately, the RAMM tries to do too many things, whilst still leaving unchecked many of the underlying problems it inherits; it provides a series of measures to compensate for other failures, with the Commission as arbiter. Despite being a Regulation, the RAMM also leaves a wide margin of discretion for Member States (and the Commission) concerning implementation, so its impact is difficult to predict. It could be implemented in a way that improves respect for fundamental rights or in a way that considerably reduces protection space in Europe. Given some Member States' current practices, there are clear dangers of new or continued violations of EU and international law.

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Se även:

ECRE 21-03-02: ECRE Policy Note: Alleviating or Exacerbating Crises? The Regulation on Crisis and Force Majeure (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210208:

ECRE 21-01-29:

Eurodac: From the Dublin system's sidekick to a database in support of EU policies till sidans topp

This working paper, by Dr Niovi Vavoula, provides us with an overview of subsequent amendments to the Eurodac Regulation, including the latest Amended proposal of the European Commission, one of the legislative files that accompanied the Pact on Asylum and Migration, published in September 2020.

Eurodac, which stands for European Dactyloscopy, is an EU-wide information system that primarily processes the fingerprints of asylum seekers and certain categories of irregular migrants. Operational since 2003, Eurodac constitutes the EU's first experiment with biometric identifiers and was designed to assist in the implementation of the Dublin system for the determination of the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection.

On 4 May 2016, the Commission adopted a recast Eurodac proposal in the framework of revising the CEAS-related legal instruments. The proposal essentially detached Eurodac from its asylum framework and re-packaged it as a system pursuing "wider immigration purposes". On 23 September 2020, the Commission proposed further amendments to the Eurodac regime. The amended proposal prescribes several amendments to the functionalities of Eurodac both in the framework of CEAS and migration control and in an interoperable environment, whilst taking into account the 2018 interinstitutional agreement between the Council and the Parliament.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210125:

Migrationsinfo.se 20-01- 22:

EU:s nya migrations- och asylpakt till sidans topp

Den 23 september 2020 presenterade Europeiska Kommissionens vice ordförande Margaritis Schinas och ansvarig EU-kommissionär Ylva Johansson Kommissionens förslag om en ny migrations- och asylpakt. Denna pakt är ett lagförslag för ett nytt gemensamt asyl och migrationssystem.

Bakgrund

Arbetet med ett gemensamt europeiskt migrations- och asylsystem, s.k. CEAS (Common European Asylum System) har pågått sedan 1999. Syftet med ett gemensamt system är att säkerställa ett rättvist, effektivt och hållbart asylsystem, oberoende av i vilket land inom EU man söker asyl. Systemet bygger idag på flera regelverk, huvudsakligen:

+ Dublinförordningen (avgör vilken stat som bär ansvar för asylprövning).

+ Skyddsgrundsdirektivet (avgör vem som får asyl).

+ Asylprocedurdirektivet (avgör hur asylprocessen ska se ut).

+ Direktiv om mottagningsvillkor (avgör vilken minimistandard som måste erbjudas till de asylsökande som får en godkänd prövning).

+ Eurodacförordningen (registrering av alla asylsökandes fingeravtryck i en databas för att underlätta tillämpningen av Dublinförordningen).

Den 23 september 2020 presenterade Europeiska Kommissionens vice ordförande Margaritis Schinas och ansvarig EU-kommissionär Ylva Johansson Kommissionens förslag om en ny migrations- och asylpakt. Denna pakt är ett lagförslag för ett nytt gemensamt asyl- och migrationssystem. Syftet med förslaget är att göra systemet effektivare och mer hållbart för höga migrationstryck, ge lämpligt stöd till de medlemsländer som tar emot det största antalet asylsökande samt motverka att migranter reser vidare på egen hand inom EU (s.k. sekundära förflyttningar).

Vad innebär den nya pakten?

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Arkiveringsdatum 210111:

ECRE 20-12-18:

ECRE comments on the Commission proposal for a screening regulation till sidans topp

ECRE is publishing key observations and recommendations on the Commission Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council introducing a screening of third country nationals at the external borders.

A new and welcome element laid down in the Regulation is independent monitoring mechanism (Article 7), which the Member States are to establish. In order for the mechanism to be an effective tool for monitoring fundamental rights at borders it has to cover all border activities, to be managed by independent actors, to lead to investigations and, where relevant, disciplinary measures, and there should be consequences for the non-compliance of Member States.

The screening process laid down in the Screening Regulation raises fundamental rights concerns:

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Arkiveringsdatum 201218:

Fores 20-12-10:

Pieces of the Puzzle - Managing Migration in the EU till sidans topp

For the last two decades, the idea of a Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has been discussed in the EU. Negotiations on a reform has put the system under scrutiny, and shown its underlying systemic flaws. With diverging views between Member States, reaching a common solution is not an easy task. How can the EU collect all the pieces and complete the puzzle?

Together with the European Liberal Forum, FORES launches "Pieces of the puzzle - Managing Migration in the EU". In this study, the author Bernd Parusel puts CEAS in a historic context, discusses current challenges and possible solutions, and looks to future scenarios.

The lack of legal pathways to the EU, failure to achieve a fair responsibility-sharing mechanism or a harmonised asylum determination are core issues addressed in this study. Parusel elaborates on these shortcomings and suggests pragmatic reforms.

From Introduction:

"This study aims to contribute to energise the European debate on migration and asylum and help policymakers make decisions founded on research and facts. In short, it asks what's wrong with the Common European Asylum System and how it could be fixed. The idea is to iden-tify the key problems the CEAS faces today, examine why they have so far not been resolved, and explore their consequences. Following from this analysis, the study aims to present scenarios for future develop-ments to clarify the choices political leaders can make, and to highlight desirable and less-desirable developments."

Launch at FORES Youtube channel (Extern länk)

Read, download or order the study and Policy brief (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 201207:

Statewatch 20-11-26:

EU: Tracking the Pact: Meijers Committee analysis of asylum proposals till sidans topp

The Meijers Committee of experts on international immigration, refugee and criminal law have analysed a number of the proposals published as part of the European Commission's Pact on Migration and Asylum. The committee examines the Asylum Screening Regulation, the Asylum Procedures Regulation, the Asylum and Migration Management Regulation, the Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation, the Strategy on the Future of Schengen and provide some general comments. Serious concerns are expressed over the proposals, in particular with regard to the use of detention, limits to legal assistance for individuals seeking protection, a lack of oversight mechanisms and the situation for unaccompanied children, amongst other things.

General comments

The New Pact provides a comprehensive response through a number of new or updated regulations and other instruments. The Meijers Committee realises that this set of proposals must be seen in the context of a politically divided European Union. Member States differ deeply in their views on (legal) migration and their willingness to take in refugees. We recognise that improvements in this field cannot be reached overnight or by making revolutionary steps. Indeed, the New Pact is primarily an attempt at breaking the deadlock in the Council to agree on core elements of the European Agenda on Migration that was published in 2015. While this is recommendable and realistic, it also risks to lose sight of the structural issues in the current design of the EU asylum system as well as the human rights of migrants concerned.

Läs mer: Sammanfattningar av alla kommentarerna (Extern länk)

Ladda ned separata pdf-filer med detaljerade kommentarer:

General comments of the Meijers Committee on the New Pact on Migration and Asylum 2020 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Comments on the Migration Pact - Asylum Screening Regulation (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Comments on the Migration Pact - Asylum Procedures Regulation (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Comments on the Migration Pact - The Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Comments on the Migration Pact - Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

Meijers Committee Recommendations for a new Strategy on the Future of Schengen (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 201111:

Picum 20-10- 14:

How the new EU Pact creates new loopholes to ignore human rights obligations till sidans topp

The new European Pact on Migration and Asylum, published on 23 September 2020, begins with the recognition that "migration has been a constant feature of human history" and that "with a well-managed system, migration can contribute to growth, innovation and social dynamism". While these statements would indeed define a coherent migration policy, the Commission has not translated them into the real contents of the policy.

Instead, with its five legislative proposals and four recommendations, the Pact proposes to build a system where deterring all unauthorised mobility and increasing deportations are the defining features of the EU's migration policy in the coming years. This would be carried out by reducing safeguards, setting unrealistic timeframes to have fair procedures, and increasing detention - with little or no consideration for human rights, welcoming or inclusion. The investment of resources and political attention in preventing access to the territory and removing people from the EU far outweighs all other aspects of the policy, despite the text acknowleddddging that the vast majority of migration is regular.

Hardly definable as "a fresh start", this system rather builds on and expands previous reforms and proposals, such as the massive reinforcement of the European Border and Coast Guard, the proliferation of "hotspots", the adoption of the interoperability regulations creating and expanding biometric databases and access to data on third country nationals, and the proposed Recast Return Directive.

PICUM would like to underline the following six concerns about the proposed Migration and Asylum Pact:

1. Rather than closing "loopholes," the Pact proposes to create them to avoid legal safeguards and to deny access to other residence procedures.

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Regeringskansliet 20-10-28:

Faktapromemoria: Meddelande om en ny migrations- och asylpakt till sidans topp

/Regeringen har publicerat flera faktapromemorior med förklaringar på svenska om EU-kommissionens förslag till ny migrations- och asylpakt. Promemoriorna innehåller genomgångar av innehållet, eventuella effekter i Sverige och preliminär svensk ståndpunkt. Här följer utdrag ur den preliminära ståndpunkten om pakten:/

(...) Barns rättigheter ska tillgodoses. Regeringen välkomnar att kommissionen slår fast att barns behov är prioriterade. Det är viktigt att i första hand beakta barnets bästa vid alla åtgärder som rör barn och att barnets rätt att bli hörd respekteras.

Regeringen välkomnar en stärkt samordning vad gäller sjöräddningsinsatser och att det tydliggörs att skyldigheten att rädda människor i sjönöd inte får kriminaliseras. Regeringen ser positivt på att det ska presenteras en ny EU- handlingsplan mot smuggling av migranter i syfte att bekämpa kriminella nätverk genom att främja samarbete och stödja brottsbekämpande insatser.

En väl fungerande ordning för migrationspolitiken inom EU är beroende av ett stärkt samarbete med strategiskt utvalda partnerländer. Regeringen välkomnar ett fördjupat samarbete med prioriterade tredjeländer för att motverka grundorsaker till irreguljär migration och tvångsfördrivning och för att stärka ursprungs- och transitländers egen kapacitet att hantera alla aspekter av migration.

Regeringen välkomnar att kommissionen framhåller behovet av ett effektivt och gemensamt EU-system för återvändande. En väl fungerande och rättssäker ordning för återvändande är avgörande för ett gemensamt och hållbart europeiskt migrationssystem.

Regeringen välkomnar ansatsen att utöka antalet vidarebosättningsplatser i EU. Vidarebosättning är ett viktigt sätt att visa solidaritet och en säker och laglig väg in i EU för personer i behov av internationellt skydd. Regeringen ser även positivt på kommissionens rekommendation för att främja andra lagliga vägar.

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Läs eller ladda ned hela promemorian (Extern länk)

Faktapromemoria: Förordning om asyl- och migrationshantering (Extern länk)

Faktapromemoria: Ändrat förslag till asylprocedurförordning (Extern länk)

Faktapromemoria: Förordning om införande av screening för tredjelandsmedborgare vid yttre gräns (Extern länk)

Faktapromemoria: Förordning om hantering av krissituationer och force majeure på migrations- och asylområdet (Extern länk)

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EU Council / Statewatch 20-11- 06:

Presidency placing heavy emphasis on externalisation, deportations, border controls till sidans topp

Discussions in the Council on the measures proposed as part of the EU's new 'Pact on Migration and Asylum' are ongoing. The aim is to find consensus on key points prior to Justice and Home Affairs Council meetings in November and December. The German Presidency set out its thinking on the proposals in a discussion paper circulated on 28 October, and published here. Externalisation, deportations, operations against migrant smuggling and tougher border controls are high on the Presidency's agenda.

See: NOTE from: Presidency to: Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA): A new way forward on European migration and asylum policy - Presidency discussion paper (12272/20, LIMITE, 28 October 2020, pdf)

Excerpts from the document follow, emphasis added:

"irregularly arriving persons not eligible for protection should in principle not be authorised to enter the EU, or leave the EU again as soon as possible."

This refers to the "border screening" procedure, whereby camps would be established at the EU's external borders and effectively be deemed not part of EU territory.

"Key elements of a comprehensive approach

3. The Council expressly welcomes the fact that the new Pact is designed to strengthen the external dimension of European migration policy. All aspects of migration and forced displacement can only be addressed effectively in cooperation with third countries, and through a whole-of-the-route approach. The problem of irregular arrivals to the European Union must be addressed as early as possible... North Africa, the Western Balkans, Turkey and sub-Saharan Africa and the so-called Silk Route should be prioritised, taking into account, inter alia the number of asylum seekers coming to Europe and the average EU-wide rejection rate.

4. ...Successful examples of cooperation on migrant smuggling should be replicated and expanded as part of the new action plan on migrant smuggling.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201023:

Statewatch 20-10-01:

Tracking the Pact: Secret documents on reception conditions and qualification till sidans topp

Last week the European Commission published its Pact on Migration and Asylum. While it includes some new measures, it also calls for the adoption of previous proposals that were the subject of significant disagreement between the Council and the European Parliament. Today we are publishing Council documents that have until now remained secret, including blocked provisional agreements on the rules on reception conditions and the criteria for qualification for international protection.

Two measures that are supposed to form part of the alleged Common European Asylum System (CEAS) are the Reception Conditions Directive and the Qualification Regulation. The former concerns the regulation of reception conditions for applicants for international protection, covering issues such as place of residence, the use of detention, education and employment. The latter sets out the criteria under which individuals may benefit from international protection and the rights of those who are granted such status.

Both measures were proposed in 2016 when, in response to the large-scale arrival of migrants and refugees, the previous Commission made an effort to further harmonise the different rules in place across the member states. At the time, Steve Peers, Professor of Law at the University of Essex, referred to the plans as the "Orbanisation of EU asylum law", because they would:

"...entrench across the EU the key elements of the Hungarian government's policy, which was initially criticized: refusing essentially all asylum-seekers at the external border and treating them as harshly as possible so as to maintain the Schengen open borders system."

As initial analysis of the new plans has highlighted, these goals also underpin the new Pact on Migration and Asylum.

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Arkiveringsdatum 201002:

EU-kommissionen 20-09-23:

New Pact on Migration and Asylum, setting out a fairer, more European approach till sidans topp

Today, the European Commission is proposing a new Pact on Migration and Asylum, covering all of the different elements needed for a comprehensive European approach to migration. It sets out improved and faster procedures throughout the asylum and migration system and sets in balance the principles of fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity. This is crucial for rebuilding trust between Member States and confidence in the capacity of the European Union to manage migration.

Following extensive consultations and an honest and holistic assessment of the situation, the Commission proposes to improve the overall system. This includes looking at ways of improving cooperation with the countries of origin and transit, ensuring effective procedures, successful integration of refugees and return of those with no right to stay. No single solution on migration can satisfy all sides, on all aspects - but by working together, the EU can find a common solution.

The Commission is today putting forward a Communication and a package of 9 instruments:

A new Screening Regulation

An amended proposal revising the Asylum Procedures Regulation

An amended proposal revising the Eurodac Regulation

A new Asylum and Migration Management Regulation

A new Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation

A new Migration Preparedness and Crisis Blueprint

A new Recommendation on Resettlement and complementary pathways

A new Recommendation on Search and Rescue operations by private vessels

A New Guidance on the Facilitators Directive

An Evidence document detailing the evidence and experience that underpin the legislative initiatives proposed under the Pact accompanies these proposals.

The Commission also announced today a dedicated taskforce to improve the situation on the island of Lesvos in a durable way. The taskforce will implement a joint pilot with the Greek authorities for new reception facilities.

Det formella dokumentet, COM(2020) 609 final, på engelska (Extern länk)

Längre pressmeddelande, på svenska (Extern länk)

Presskonferens på Youtube, pakten börjar presenteras ca 21.30 min in i sändningen (Extern länk)

Hämta hela "Migration and Asylum Package" i 12 filer (Extern länk)

Allmänna frågor och svar om pakten (Extern länk)

Jämförelse mellan nuvarande system, EU-kommissionens förslag 2016 och den nya pakten (Extern länk)

Förslagets sida under webbplatsen om EU-kommissionens prioriteringar 2019-2024, på svenska (Extern länk)

Statistik över EU-ländernas invandrade befolkning, inresor, asylansökningar, viseringar, återsändande mm, på svenska (Extern länk)

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EU-parlamentet 20-09-24:

MEPs question whether the new Migration Pact will bring about real change till sidans topp

The new Migration Pact is insufficient for the majority of EP groups. Some demand compulsory relocation of refugees; others want a firmer stance on irregular arrivals.

The Civil Liberties Committee held a first debate about the Commission's proposals with Vice-President Margaritis Schinas and Commissioner Ylva Johansson on Thursday. Some MEPs considered the initiative to be "a step in the right direction", to help front-line countries, and others admitted it might be the only way forward, given the position of several EU member states. All requested more information about how the pact would be applied on the ground.

Many speakers referred to the situation on Lesvos, following the fire in Moria refugee camp, and asked whether the new rules will prevent that humanitarian disaster from being repeated. They raised questions about whether fundamental rights will be respected in the new screening and border procedures and the detention of asylum-seekers. Several regretted that the Commission has not removed the contentious principle of the current Dublin Regulation, that the country of first-entry must deal with an asylum-claim.

EU countries that do not want to transfer refugees to their territory would be given the option to sponsor returns of those without a right to stay instead; MEPs wondered what will happen if most member states opt for the latter. There were also questions raised about the enforcement mechanisms to ensure the new rules are effectively applied.

Some MEPs complained that cooperation with third countries does not include the establishment of hotspots to process asylum requests outside European territory and insisted the EU must be tougher on smugglers.

Artikeln med länk till debatten (Extern länk)

UNHCR 20-09-22: UNHCR and IOM call for a truly common and principled approach to European policies (Extern länk)

Europarådet 20-09-23: EU Pact on Migration and Asylum: a renewed opportunity to uphold human rights in migration governance (Extern länk)

IOM 20-09-25: IOM Welcomes Proposals for a New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum (Extern länk)

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EU Law Analyses 20-09-25:

First analysis of the EU's new asylum proposals till sidans topp

Professor Steve Peers, Law School, University of Essex*

This week the EU Commission published its new package of proposals on asylum and (non-EU) migration - consisting of proposals for legislation, some 'soft law', attempts to relaunch talks on stalled proposals and plans for future measures. The following is an explanation of the new proposals (not attempting to cover every detail) with some first thoughts. Overall, while it is possible that the new package will lead to agreement on revised asylum laws, this will come at the cost of risking reduced human rights standards.

Background

Since 1999, the EU has aimed to create a 'Common European Asylum System'. A first phase of legislation was passed between 2003 and 2005, followed by a second phase between 2010 and 2013. Currently the legislation consists of: a) the Qualification Directive, which defines when people are entitled to refugee status (based on the UN Refugee Convention) or subsidiary protection status, and what rights they have; b) the Dublin III Regulation, which allocates responsibility for an asylum seeker between Member States; c) the Eurodac Regulation, which facilitates the Dublin system by setting up a database of fingerprints of asylum seekers and people who cross the external border without authorisation; d) the Asylum Procedures Directive, which sets out the procedural rules governing asylum applications, such as personal interviews and appeals; e) the Reception Conditions Directive, which sets out standards on the living conditions of asylum-seekers, such as rules on housing and welfare; and f) the Asylum Agency Regulation, which set up an EU agency (EASO) to support Member States' processing of asylum applications.

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Läs mer (Extern länk)

AYS 20-09-24: What is the EU's Deal, Anyway? (Extern länk)

Catherine Woollard, ECRE 20-09-25: The pact on migration and asylum: It's never enough, never, never (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200805:

FARR 20-07-22:

Den nya pakten - The new Asylum and Migration Pact till sidans topp

EU:s stater enades aldrig om ett nytt Common European Asylum System (CEAS) 2018. Största hindret var att flera länder sade nej till att asylsökande skulle fördelas mellan länderna, vilket bland annat Grekland, Italien, Spanien, Cypern och Malta kräver. Efter det har vi haft EU-val till parlamentet, EU har fått en ny ordförande och en ny kommission tillsattes under hösten 2019.

Svenska tidigare arbetsmarknadsministern Ylva Johansson blev kommissionär för asyl- och migrationsområdet tillsammans med grekiska Margaritis Schinas. De har sagt att de vill göra saker annorlunda och vill få igenom överenskommelser på asylområdet snabbare än processen med förra kommissionens CEAS-förslag 2016. Hur det ska gå till har inte förklarats; de kan ju inte bortse från parlamentet och unionens beslutsordning. Men nu pratas det i alla fall inte om nya CEAS längre utan om The new Asylum and Migration Pact - den nya asyl- och migrationspakten.

Efter landstigningsplattformarna

2018 diskuterades landstigningsplattformar och mottagningsläger för asylsökande utanför EU:s gränser - vilket länderna på andra sidan Medelhavet inte var intresserade av. Sedan kom kommissionens förslag till omarbetat Återtagande/återvändandedirektiv och över huvud taget har asyl- och migrationsdiskussionerna inom EU mest fokuserat återvändande och förstärkningen av EU:s yttre gränser, framför allt mot Turkiet. Mycket resurser och pengar har lagts på det, Frontex har till exempel fått mer resurser och fler gränsbevakare.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200715:

UNHCR 20-07-01:

UNHCR issues recommendations for EU during the pandemic and beyond till sidans topp

As the world continues to combat COVID-19, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is calling on the German Presidency of the European Union (EU) to keep refugee protection high on the agenda. UNHCR is proposing concrete ways the EU can ensure a bold and robust response to forced displacement during the pandemic as well as long term. The envisaged EU Pact on Migration and Asylum also provides an opportunity for the EU to better protect forcibly displaced people in Europe and abroad, and support host countries.

"The virus knows no borders and impacts everyone but certain populations, including forcibly displaced people, are at heightened risk," said Gonzalo Vargas Llosa, UNHCR's Representative for EU Affairs. "Through both political and financial support, the EU can help to manage a global crisis and better protect refugees."

The virus can only be tackled when everyone is protected. This also means upholding international standards and laws during the pandemic, and drawing on lessons to ensure a long-term responsive and responsible EU approach to migration and asylum.

UNHCR is calling on the EU to continue to preserve access to asylum even during these challenging times. Fair and fast asylum procedures to quickly determine who needs international protection and who does not, in line with legal safeguards, and an effective solidarity mechanism with EU Member States receiving a disproportionate number of asylum claims would support a workable and sustainable asylum system. Now is the time to shift the EU's response to disembarking and relocating people rescued at sea to a predictable mechanism - saving lives and protecting people must be at the heart of all responses.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200624:

Asylrättscentrum 20-05-26:

Öppna portar och stängda gränser till sidans topp

- En rapport om EU, covid-19 och utvecklingen inom arbetet med EU:s gemensamma asylsystem

Våren 2020 har på många sätt varit en omskakande period då coronakrisen på ett genomgripande sätt påverkat världen. Från ett migrationsperspektiv har pandemin lett till att länder stänger sina gränser och att möjligheten för människor att kunna söka asyl begränsats. I en ny rapport ger Asylrättscentrums jurist Sara Jonsson en uppdatering av nuläget inom arbetet med CEAS, flyktingsituationen i Europa och vilka konsekvenser covid-19 fått för människors möjlighet att söka asyl i EU.

Turkiet "öppnar portarna" till Europa

I slutet av februari 2020 eskalerade den våldsamma situationen i Idlib-provinsen i Syrien på nytt. Upp emot en miljon människor tvingades på flykt inom de norra delarna av Syrien. Turkiets president Recep Tayyip Erdogan förklarade då - så som han så många gånger tidigare hade hotat med - att han hade öppnat portarna till Europa. Tusentals desperata men förhoppningsfulla asylsökande tog sig då mot den turkisk-grekiska gränsen i hopp om att kunna söka asyl i EU. Gränsen var dock hårt bevakad, och visade sig nu vara stängd.

Den 1 mars 2020 meddelade Grekland att asylrätten hade suspenderats i en månad. Ylva Johansson, ansvarig kommissionär för bland annat migrationsfrågor, gjorde två saker klart: EU har både en rätt och en skyldighet att skydda sina gränser men asylrätten måste respekteras. Den 1 april 2020 började Grekland återigen att registerna asylansökningar. President Erdogan har enligt uppgift anmodat asylsökande att lämna gränsområdet. Samtidigt finns uppgifter om att Turkiet fortsätter uppmana migranter att ta sig mot kusten för att ta sig vidare mot Grekland med båt.

Coronakrisens konsekvenser - stängda gränser

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Arkiveringsdatum 200208:

UNHCR januari 2020:

UNHCR's recommendations for the proposed pact on migration and asylum till sidans topp

UNHCR welcomes the European Commission's plan to develop a new Pact on Migration and Asylum. We welcome the indication from the Commission that the Pact will take a comprehensive approach by addressing the internal and external aspects of these issues. We understand the Pact will set out some next steps for the reform of the Common European Asylum System and deal with the issues of solidarity, return, border procedures and protection-sensitive entry systems, and support to countries outside of the EU. We also understand it will include a strong commitment to resettlement and complementary pathways.

UNHCR stands ready to support the development of a fair and efficient asylum system within the EU and the development of responses to tackle forced displacement globally. The new Pact provides a key opportunity to advance the implementation of the pledges and commitments from the Global Refugee Forum, held in December, which marked a key milestone in the implementation of the Global Compact on Refugees.

UNHCR takes this opportunity to set out some recommendations for the future Pact and to renew its vision for how the EU can achieve a bold, imaginative and workable approach to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively in accordance with international law.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200125:

Asylrättscentrum 20-01-09:

Dödläge, nytt fokus och nya aktörer - EU:s gemensamma asylsystem till sidans topp

Sedan april 2016 har EU-kommissionen arbetet med att reformera EU:s gemensamma asylsystem (CEAS). Asylrättscentrums jurist Sara Jonsson följer arbetet och har sammanställt en lägesanalys.

I april 2016 meddelade EU-kommissionen att de ville reformera EU:s gemensamma asylsystem (CEAS). Vi på Asylrättscentrum har följt arbetet och har vid flera tillfällen kommenterat och analyserat det som sker. Eftersom en ny kommissionär med ansvar för migrationsfrågot har tillsatts och då det allt mer i den svenska debatten lyfts ett behov av ett gemensamt system, har vår jurist Sara Jonsson sammanställt en nulägesanalys av arbetet med att reformera CEAS.

Tidigare analyser visar på många problem med rättssäkerhet

Asylrättscentrum har under våren 2018 kommenterat och analyserat merparten av de centrala rättsakterna i reformarbetet. Vi såg då flera grundläggande rättssäkerhetsproblem med det föreslagna asylpaketet, som vi i vissa delar anser vara svårförenligt med flyktingkonventionen och principen om non-refoulement.

Samtidigt som vi ser många problem med rättssäkerheten med den föreslagna reformen, anser vi att det finns behov av harmonisering och solidaritetsåtgärder inom EU:s asylpolitik.

Arbetets utveckling - dödläge och nya spelare

I slutet av juni 2018 hölls ett toppmöte i Sofia där målsättningen var att det så kallade CEAS-paketet skulle antas. Mötet slutade dock med man konstaterade att man inte hittade enighet i frågan om CEAS och större delen av mötet diskuterades andra frågeställningar, bland annat lyftes vikten av att stoppa så kallad "olaglig migration".

Under hösten 2018 hände det inte så mycket gällande CEAS. På migrationsområdet diskuterades istället avtal med tredje länder såsom Egypten, och ett reviderat förslag på återvändandedirektiv presenterades.

(...)

Läs mer och hämta hela analysen (Extern länk)

UNHCR 20-01-09: UNHCR issues recommendations for EU to make 2020 year of change for protection (Extern länk)

Read UNHCR's full Recommendations for the Croatian and German Presidencies of the Council of the European Union (Extern länk)

Sveriges Radio 20-01-10: Sverige tvingas släppa krav om flyktingmottagande (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 191017:

Asylrättscentrum 19-10-08:

Europaprojektet till sidans topp

Det här projektet har som mål att belysa asylrättens kärna och bidra till att utvecklingen i Sverige och Europa är rättssäker och konventionsenlig. Vi vill även förtydliga och tillgängliggöra relevant information till asylsökande.

Asylrätten är under förändring. I Sverige har en parlamentarisk kommitté tillsatts för att ta fram en ny migrationspolitik för Sverige. På europeisk nivå pågår ett arbete för en gemensam europeisk migrationspolitik. Dessutom pågår en diskussion om tredjelandsavtal och säkra länder. Det här projektet vill belysa asylrättens kärna i dessa beslutsprocesser. Samtidigt vill vi stärka de asylsökandes röst och stötta dem med den kunskap om asylrättsliga frågor inom EU som de efterfrågar och behöver för att kunna fatta välgrundade beslut om sin framtid. Projektet kommer därför även att fokusera på sekundära förflyttningar.

Genom finansiering av Postkodsstiftelsen har Asylrättscentrum möjlighet att under 2019 och 2020 följa, analysera och förklara förändringarna inom migrationspolitiken.

Referensgruppsmöten

För att säkerställa att arbetet i projektet fokuserar på de frågor som är relevanta för asylsökande själva har Asylrättscentrum bjudit in asylsökande till referensgruppsmöten. De frågor och perspektiv som lyfts under träffarna arbetar vi sedan vidare med, och återkopplar senare till referensgruppen.

Möten med politiker

Både på Sverige- och EU-nivå pågår just nu ett arbete med att utforma ny migrationspolitik. För att värna en asylrätten och rättssäkerheten i migrationspolitiken träffar Asylrättscentrum politiker och beslutsfattare.

Europaresan

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ECRE 19-10- 11:

ECRE Policy Note: Making the CEAS Work, Starting Today till sidans topp

ECRE has published a Policy Note identifying key implementation priorities and recommendations for EU measures in order to make the Common European Asylum System function.

The stalemate in the negotiations on the reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) over the past three years has demonstrated the inability of European Union (EU) Member States to find common ground on asylum policies. The persistent blockage in the Dublin IV and Asylum Procedures Regulation proposals in particular is caused by a proliferation of competing Member State interests with more divisions than in previous negotiations. Against that backdrop, withdrawal of the proposals is an increasingly likely move from the new European Commission.

ECRE maintains that the 2016 proposals tabled by the Commission constituted a worrying lowering of protection standards and were based on a flawed vision of outsourcing responsibility for refugees to regions outside Europe. ECRE therefore supports withdrawal of most of the proposals. The focus needs to be compliance not reform, with two exceptions: First, while Dublin IV should be withdrawn, ultimately legislative reform of the Dublin system is needed. Second, a new legal base for EASO and its transformation into the EU Asylum Agency (EUAA) remains necessary.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

UNHCR June 2019:

UNHCR's recommendations for the Finnish Presidency of the Council of the EU till sidans topp

The Republic of Finland (hereafter Finland) will hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union (EU) at a critical juncture, against the backdrop of the 2019 European Parliament elections, the formation of a new European Commission, the last phase of the Multi-annual Financial Framework (MFF) negotiations and the ongoing discussions on the reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS).

In this context, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, outlines the following key protection priorities for the Finnish Presidency:

+ In line with the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR), protect refugees better through enhanced responsibility sharing in the EU and globally;

+ Foster the development of fair, effective and well-managed asylum systems, including through the implementation/reform of a protection-oriented CEAS; and

+ Promote EU MS pledges ahead of the 2019 High-Level Segment on statelessness.

These priorities form the foundation of UNHCR's full recommendations for the Finnish Presidency, and are to be read in conjunction with UNHCR's "Better Protecting Refugees in the EU and Globally", which sets out the organization's proposals for EU asylum and migration policies.

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UNHCR recommends that the Finnish Presidency:

+ Plays a crucial role in ensuring that negotiations do not lose sight of the right to asylum that requires access to the territory to have meaning, as guaranteed by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.

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Rådgivningsbyrån 19-05-17:

Utvecklingen av EU:s migrationsreform - ur askan i elden till sidans topp

Den 26 maj i år är det val till Europaparlamentet. Utgången i valet kommer att få stor påverkan på EU:s migrationspolitik som är i en pågående förändringsfas.

Bara under det senaste året har tonläget förändrats avsevärt och debatten har gått från att diskutera rättssäkerhetsfrågor och fördelningsmekanismer inom EU till att fokusera på avtal med tredje länder, hårdare tag i återvändandeprocessen och förslag som utmanar asylrättens kärna, exempelvis externaliserade asylprocesser i tredje länder.

I de förhandlingar som har ägt rum de senaste åren gällande ett reformerat asylpaket inom EU har förslag med en negativ inverkan för rättssäkerheten och människorättsskyddet i många fall bromsats av Europaparlamentet. Vilka som sitter i Europaparlamentet kommer därför få en stor påverkan på hur EU:s migrationspolitisk formas de närmsta åren.

Rådgivningsbyrån för asylsökande och flyktingar följer inom ramen för vårt Europaprojekt utvecklingen inom EU på migrationsområdet. Det gemensamma europeiska asylsystemet (Common European Asylum System - nedan förkortat CEAS) består av ett antal rättsakter som medlemsstaterna måste beakta i sina nationella migrationsprocesser. Följ länken för att läsa en genomgång av vad förslagen på ett reformerat "CEAS-paket" innebär, det senaste årets utveckling på migrationsområdet inom EU, och en framåtblick.

Hämta rapporten "Utvecklingen av EU:s migrationsreform - ur askan i elden för förespråkare av en rättssäker migrationsprocess" (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190517:

EASO 19-05-08:

Detention of applicants for international protection in the context of the CEAS till sidans topp

Judicial Analysis - Compilation of Jurisprudence

Through its Network of Courts and Tribunals' Members, EASO is developing Professional Development Series (PDS) and Professional Development Workshops intended for members of EU+ courts and tribunals.

The PDS are developed for judges by judges under the coordination of EASO, with full respect of judicial independence. The series aim to offer courts and tribunals members an overview of the full spectrum of EU international protection law and procedures and to that end they comprise a judicial analysis, a compilation of jurisprudence and a judicial trainers guidance note (restricted to judicial trainers) for each subject covered. Under the auspices of the PDS, EASO organises professional development workshops that aim to provide members of courts and tribunals, including judicial trainers, expertise in the topics covered by the PDS.

Following recommendations from the Network, a new PDS chapter on detention of applicants for international protection in the context of the Common European Asylum System has been developed by a group of judicial experts from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Slovenia together with a representative of UNHCR, making it the first EASO publication to focus on this sensitive issue. The new PDS chapter, which is the 9th of the relevant series, analyses the legal framework pertaining to detention and addresses relating key issues, such as the definition of detention and the definition of an applicant for international protection, the legal grounds for detention and relating evidential issues, the duration and conditions of this measure as well as alternative measures to detention and specific safeguards for applicants.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190318:

Justitiedepartementet 19-02-25:

Kommenterad dagordning för rådets möte för rättsliga och inrikes frågor 7-8 mars till sidans topp

Dagordningen innehåller regeringens kommentarer med bakgrund och svensk ståndpunkt till bland annat följande punkter:

+ EU-kommissionens förslag till ny förordning om en europeisk gräns-och kustbevakning, med bakgrund och svensk ståndpunkt

+ Reformeringen av det gemensamma europeiska asylsystemet och vidarebosättning, lägesrapport

a) Dublinförordningen

b) Direktivet om mottagningsvillkor

c) Skyddsgrundsförordningen

d) Förordningen om asylförfaranden

e) Eurodacförordningen

f) Förordningen om EU:s asylbyrå

g) Förordningen om ramen för vidarebosättning

+ Migration: EU-samarbete med länder utanför EU, Lägesrapport och diskussion.

+ EU:s åtgärder mot terrorism - lägesrapport och fortsatt inriktning, riktlinjedebatt

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Arkiveringsdatum 190302:

Statewatch 19-02-27:

Common European Asylum System legislation - still going nowhere fast till sidans topp

The Council's latest "progress report" on the seven pieces of legislation underpinning the Common European Asylum System has very little progress to report.

Dublin Regulation: "...the discussions, including the bilateral consultations carried out by the Austrian Presidency in the framework of the Tour des Capitales, grounded the assessment of the Romanian Presidency that there was no realistic prospect of making any major progress on the Dublin reform in the short term, and therefore concentrated its main efforts on advancing as much as possible the other asylum reform files during the time available before the upcoming European Parliament elections."

Reception Conditions Directive: "On 23 January 2019, COREPER confirmed support to the proposed amendments with a view to continue negotiations at technical level with the European Parliament... However, following preliminary discussions with the European Parliament, it appeared that the European Parliament stands by the provisional agreement reached in June 2018 and does not wish to reopen negotiations."

Qualification Regulation: "On 23 January 2019, COREPER confirmed support to the proposed amendments with a view to continuing negotiations with the European Parliament at technical level. In informal contacts with the European Parliament it became clear that the European Parliament stands by the provisional agreement reached in June 2018 and does not wish to reopen negotiations."

Asylum Procedures Regulation: "Four JHA Counsellors meetings were organized, which focused on the latest proposal of compromise for the border procedure, issued by the Presidency. A reading of the whole text was also made, registering progress on the file and coming closer to a consolidated version, which will be addressed to COREPER for information and, possibly, further guidance in March."

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Arkiveringsdatum 181218:

EU-kommissionen 18-12-04:

EU-kommissionen säger att asylreformen måste fortsätta till sidans topp

Inför Europeiska rådets möte i december uppmanar EU-kommissionen medlemsländerna och Europaparlamentet att konsolidera de betydande framsteg som redan gjorts genom att anta de återstående reformförslagen.

EU:s övergripande migrationsstrategi ger resultat på alla fronter: fördjupat samarbete med partnerländer, bättre skydd av de yttre gränserna, och effektivare verktyg för att hantera migrationen inom EU. Antalet irreguljära flyktingar har nu sjunkit till samma nivåer som före krisen och därför är det nu dags att åtgärda de brister som återstår. Arbetet måste fortsätta på operativ nivå, både externt och internt, och EU-länderna och Europaparlamentet bör snabbt genomföra resten av EU:s asylreform. De bör i synnerhet anta de fem förslag där det finns bred politisk enighet före nästa års Europaval.

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Fortfarande krävs kompromisser om några delar av EU:s asylreform, men generellt sett har betydande framsteg gjorts. Fem av EU-kommissionens ursprungliga sju förslag är färdiga att antas (skyddsgrundsförordningen, direktivet om mottagningsvillkor , förordningen om Europeiska unionens asylbyrå, Eurodacförordningen, förordningen om en unionsram för vidarebosättning). Även om de enskilda förslagen ingår i en omfattande reform har vart och ett av dem ett klart mervärde, och ett snabbt antagande av dem skulle förbättra läget avsevärt ute på fältet.

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Hela pressmeddelandet (Extern länk)

EU-kommissionen 18-12-04: Remarks by Commissioner Avramopoulos on progress made under the European Agenda on Migration (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181108:

Statewatch 18-10-24:

CEAS: Asylum procedures at the border a sticking point for Member States till sidans topp

As the Member States continue to disagree over proposed changes to Common European Asylum System, "the biggest outstanding issue for most Member States" in the Asylum Procedures Regulation is that of the "border procedure" set out in Article 41, according to a recent note sent by the Austrian Presidency to Member States' representatives.

Under the Commission's proposal, Article 41 provides for authorities to:

"take a decision on an application [for international protection] at the border or in transit zones of the Member State on: (a) the admissibility of an application... (b) the merits of an application..."

According to the recent Presidency document:

"Article 41 proved challenging with respect to various aspects, such as the deadline for keeping persons at the border, and the possibility to use such a procedure also in proximity to the external border or in transit zones or, in case of disproportionate numbers of arrivals, in other locations. However, the most difficult and divisive question is whether the application of the border procedure should be optional or mandatory.

During the JHA Council on 12 October 2018, some Member States stated that they are opposed to a mandatory asylum border procedure, while other Member States expressed support for a mandatory border procedure in Art. 41 APR."

Discsussions on 16 October on a Presidency compromise text "once again showed that there is no agreement on whether in some cases the border procedure should be mandatory or not."

Further problems come from the fact that "the question of the border procedure is not an isolated issue of Article 41 of the Asylum Procedure Regulation but also directly or indirectly linked with other legislative files" - for example the Reception Conditions Directive, the Schengen Borders Code and the Return Directive.

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Artikeln med länkar till dokumenten (Extern länk)

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, Sveriges Radio, SvT, andra svenska media via Nyhetsfilter och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media till exempel via Are You Syrious och Rights in Exile, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, Statewatch och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Asylrättscentrum, Svenska Amnesty, FARR och #vistårinteut samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

Bevakning: Hjalte Lagercrantz och Sanna Vestin. Sammanställning: Sanna Vestin. Asylnytt är ett ideellt projekt. Sponsring avser prenumerationsavgifter. Tips emottages tacksamt.