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Arkiveringsdatum 211231:

FRA 21-12-13:

Forced return monitoring systems - State of play in 27 EU Member States till sidans topp

Since 2014, FRA has been publishing an annual update of the forced return monitoring systems EU Member States have set up under Article 8 (6) of the EU's Return Directive. This overview describes different indicators for an effective forced return monitoring system. It includes the organisation responsible for monitoring forced return, the number of operations monitored in 2020, the phases of monitored return operations, the number of staff trained and working as monitors, and whether the monitoring body issued public reports about their monitoring.

All EU Member States have some form of return monitoring by law. But in practice, gaps remain. For example, in Germany and in Sweden the main monitoring entity is closely connected to the authority responsible for returns. Without sufficient separation between the two, a monitoring system cannot be entirely effective.

In some EU Member States, only very few operations are monitored or the monitoring is limited to the pre-return phase and does not cover in-flight and arrival phases of return. These are equally essential.

Developments over the years also show that the implementation of national monitoring systems is not linear. Particularly where it is project-based or based on a temporary agreement between the authority and the monitoring entity, an adequate forced return monitoring system may be in place but gaps re-emerge when the funding ends. Such gaps occurred in 2020 in, for instance, Italy, Bulgaria and Lithuania, where the assigned civil society organisations' financing expired.

In 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic considerably affected the number of returns in the EU. Consequently, return monitoring figures also decreased in 2020.

The table below compares developments in EU Member States. The overview does not cover the pool of forced return monitors under the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex.

Till tabellen (Extern länk)

Frontex 21-12-09: Frontex and ICMPD conclude project on developing pool of forced-return monitors (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 211210:

EU-kommissionen 21-11-23:

EU föreslår svartlistning av transportföretag som underlättar människosmuggling till sidans topp

Som en del av EU:s gemensamma reaktion på statsstött utnyttjande av människor vid EU:s yttre gräns mot Belarus föreslår kommissionen och utrikesrepresentanten i dag åtgärder mot transportföretag som underlättar människosmuggling och människohandel till EU. Det är fråga om ett nytt verktyg i EU:s verktygslåda för att stödja medlemsländer som utsätts för sådana hybridattacker. Andra former av stöd som humanitärt bistånd bör komplettera åtgärder enligt det här nya instrumentet. .

- Försök att destabilisera EU genom att utnyttja människor fungerar inte, säger EU-kommissionens ordförande Ursula von der Leyen. EU står enat, och vidtar åtgärder för att lösa situationen vid EU:s yttre gräns mot Belarus. I dag lägger vi fram ett nytt förslag om svartlistning av transportföretag som är inblandade i människosmuggling och människohandel till EU, som jag aviserade för två veckor sedan. Vi accepterar aldrig att människor utnyttjas för politiska syften.

Riktade åtgärder mot transportföretag som underlättar eller ägnar sig åt smuggling

Den senaste tidens händelser vid EU:s gräns mot Belarus kunde inte ha ägt rum utan att vissa transportföretag medvetet eller omedvetet bidragit till utnyttjande av människor, vilket fått enorma humanitära konsekvenser och medfört allvarliga problem för säkerheten vid EU:s yttre gränser och stabiliteten i regionen.

För att EU ska ha lämpliga verktyg för att bekämpa utnyttjande av människor i politiska syften föreslår kommissionen därför en ny rättslig ram som gör att EU kan vidta riktade åtgärder mot transportföretag inom alla transportslag (mark, flyg, inre vattenvägar och sjöfart) som ägnar sig åt eller underlättar människosmuggling eller människohandel till EU. Åtgärderna bör vara proportionerliga och utformas från fall till fall. Åtgärderna kan vara restriktioner av verksamheten på EU:s marknad, tillfälligt indrag av licenser eller tillstånd, förbud mot att tanka eller utföra underhåll inom EU samt förbud mot att transitera eller flyga över EU, göra mellanlandningar eller anlöpa hamnar i EU.

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Statewatch 21-11-26:

Deportations at record levels as Frontex foresees post-pandemic removals till sidans topp

Frontex supported EU member states in removing over 8,300 non-EU nationals to their countries of origin in the first half of 2021, the largest ever number for a six-month period. However, the number of operations with at least one human rights monitor on board decreased by 7%, according to a report recently circulated to EU member states by the border agency.

The number of people removed with Frontex's support amounts to twice the figure for the same period in 2020 and is 9% higher than in 2019. The report, drafted by the agency's Returns Division, states that once COVID-19 related restrictions are no longer a barrier to deportations, "the Agency will play an even stronger role in assisting with an unprecedented number of returns, also taking into account possible backlogs in member States."

The number of charter flights with a human rights monitor on board fell by 7% compared to the previous period, which the report says was largely due to COVID-19. 109 human rights monitors were deployed on charter flight operations coordinated by Frontex, 51 of which came from the agency's 'pool' made up of national monitors. At least one monitor was on board 47% of those flights (100% for collecting return operations, 73% for joint return operations and just 23% for national return operations). By comparison, 80% of the charter flights coordinated by Frontex in 2019 had a monitor on board.

Frontex and the FRO are unable to consider the merits of return decisions issued by member states yet these may, per se, be based on breaches of individual rights. The report does not provide details on the destination of the return flights supported by the agency - so even if the monitoring of flights and condition on board improve, there is no certainty that Frontex is not supporting flights that could be refoulements.

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Arkiveringsdatum 211122:

FRA 21-11-04:

Effective access to legal aid: key safeguard for migrants in return proceedings till sidans topp

Effective access to competent legal assistance is a key safeguard to enable people in return proceedings to exercise their rights to an effective remedy and access to justice, finds a new report from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). It identifies current practices and issues, and suggests how national authorities could improve effective access to competent legal aid.

Some migrants who come to Europe are asked to return to their country of origin. While waiting for their departure and facing a potential ban on re-entering the EU they can be detained in pre-removal facilities. Still, they can challenge decisions related to their return, exercising their rights to an effective judicial remedy and access to justice. This is why legal aid is so important to them.

But access to free legal aid can be difficult, particularly for returnees deprived of liberty. It became harder still during the Covid-19 pandemic.

All EU Member States, as well as North Macedonia and Serbia, provide some form of free legal aid in pre-removal detention. But with various exemptions and restrictions, depending on the type of decision returnees wish to appeal.

Returnees may face a range of legal and practical challenges which affect how they can access competent free legal aid on time. This can be language barriers, access to information, strict deadlines and complying with strict legal requirements.

FRA's report on 'Legal aid for returnees deprived of liberty' suggests steps national authorities could take to improve access to justice for people in return procedures. For example:

1. Provide free legal aid to those in pre-removal detention for all return-related decisions, including detention, removal, and entry bans, as well as consultations in advance of court hearings.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210720:

EU-kommissionen 21-07-15:

The Commission proposes visa measures to improve cooperation on return till sidans topp

Today, the Commission is proposing to the Council to adopt temporary restrictive measures on short-stay visas for visa applicants who are nationals of Bangladesh, Iraq and The Gambia. Under the revised Visa Code in force since February 2020, the EU's short-stay visa policy is linked to cooperation with partner countries on readmitting their nationals who do not have the right to stay in the EU. The proposals adopted today aim to improve the 3 countries' cooperation with the Member States on readmission. Effective return and readmission as well as sustainable reintegration are essential elements of comprehensive, balanced, tailor-made and mutually beneficial migration partnerships with countries outside the EU. Fostering co-operation is an important element of this policy and the EU needs to mobilise all available tools, including development co-operation, trade or visa. Improved and sustained cooperation could also potentially open the path to more favourable visa measures.

Temporary visa measures

According to the Commission's assessment for the year 2019 and taking into account subsequent developments, including steps taken by the Commission to improve such cooperation, the level of cooperation on readmission with Bangladesh, Iraq and The Gambia requires improvement. Today's proposed measures cover certain procedural aspects for issuing short-stay visas, specifically:

+ Suspension of waiver of certain supporting documents for certain categories of applicants (e.g. bona fide travellers);

+ Suspension of optional visa fee waiver for holders of diplomatic passports;

+ Suspension of the maximum processing time (beyond 15 days);

+ Suspension of the mandatory issuance of multiple entry visas with a long validity.

The measures do not apply to visa applicants who are family members of EU citizens or other beneficiaries of free movement in the EU.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210616:

ECRE 21-06-04:

ECRE Policy Note: Playing the visa card? till sidans topp

ECRE has published a Policy Note which assesses the likely impact of using visa leverage to increase the number of people returned and deported from the EU and the risks attached to pursuing this strategy.

As part of the revised Visa Code, the European Commission has completed its first report assessing how third country governments respond to return and readmission requests issued by EU Member States. The report was welcomed by EU Member States and Commissioner Johansson has vowed to push ahead in line with the measures set out in the related Communication which include extending processing times for visas, increasing costs, and shortening the validity of visas for countries which are not cooperating sufficiently on readmission according to the EC's assessment.

The Policy Note assesses past evidence of linking the applicable visa regime to readmission which does not provide a clear picture. While it may have led to the conclusion of readmission agreements, this in turn has not resulted in a higher return rate. There are cases where visa leverage has proved harmful to the overall relations with the country concerned, such as for France and countries in Northern Africa. The extent to which findings from the Western Balkans can be applied to other context where the prospect of visa-free travel and/or eventual accession to the EU does not exist is limited. Research suggests that restrictive visa regimes tend to decrease return rates as closure of regular travel opportunities increases the desirability of remaining in Europe. Given all these uncertainties, it is difficult to assess the likely impact of visa restrictions or liberalisation on return numbers.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210603:

Regeringen 21-05-24:

Fakta-PM om EU-förslag om självmant återvändande och återintegrereing till sidans topp

Meddelandet innehåller förslag om hur EU:s arbete med självmant återvändande och återintegrering ska kunna förbättras, både genom åtgärder inom EU och i samarbete med tredjeländer.

Regeringen stödjer åtgärder som bidrar till ett effektivt och gemensamt EU- system för återvändande och till en hållbar återintegrering. En väl fungerande och rättssäker ordning för återvändande är avgörande för ett gemensamt och hållbart europeiskt migrationssystem. Ett nära samarbete mellan samtliga aktörer, både inom EU och i tredjeländer skapar förutsättningar för en hållbar återintegrering som kan bidra till att tillvarata migrationens positiva utvecklingseffekter.

I det nu aktuella meddelandet redogör kommissionen i huvudsak för hur redan pågående åtgärder ska kunna samordnas och harmoniseras i syfte att få till stånd ett mer effektivt system för självmant återvändande och återintegrering. Kommissionen anger bland annat att man avser att bidra till slutförandet av de redan pågående förhandlingarna om en ny migrations- och asylpakt och att medlemsstaterna bör utnyttja det stöd som Frontex kan bidra med inom området för självmant återvändande och återintegrering. Kommissionen avser också att tillsammans med Europeiska utrikestjänsten verka för samordning mellan de aktörer som i tredjeländer är verksamma i återvändande- och återintegreringsprocesserna. I meddelandet nämns även att EU avser att fortsätta med sitt stöd för att underlätta återvändande också mellan tredjeländer.

Medlemsstaterna uppmanas att bistå enskilda personer som ska återvända med nödvändig rådgivning. Kommissionen avser att utarbeta kvalitetskriterier för att öka kvalitén och harmoniseringen av de insatser för återintegrering som tillhandahålls av olika aktörer.

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PICUM 21-05-27:

The EU strategy on returns: Between the devil and the deep biue sea till sidans topp

On 27 April 2021, the EU Commission published its first EU Strategy on voluntary return and reintegration. The strategy is envisaged by the New Pact on Migration and Asylum as an integral policy for a common EU system for returns. It conceives actions in seven areas with the aim of increasing the number of voluntary returns. If, on paper, the text recognizes voluntary return as being more efficient, cost-effective and preferable to forced return, in practice this is contradicted by several ongoing legislative proposals which make access to voluntary return more difficult. The text highlights the role of "swift and efficient return border procedures" to encourage migrants to take up voluntary returns, including for people in administrative detention and those whose asylum application is still pending. The Strategy increases the role of Frontex in promoting voluntary returns, despite the growing scrutiny into the lack of accountability and the potential involvement of the agency in human rights violations.

"Voluntary" returns?

Increasing the rate of returns is one of the main objectives of the European Pact on Migration and Asylum. The term "return" appears nearly 100 times in the Commission Communication on the Pact alone - while the term "rights" only 14. While forced return remains a central component of the EU return system, the objective of this strategy is to develop a more uniform and coordinated approach that acknowledges the potential of voluntariness within the return process. [1] Even though the number of returnees is still considered a strong indicator for the effectiveness of any return policy, this strategy recognizes that "it is important to not only consider the return rates but also the situation of the individuals concerned, enabling their return in a dignified manner and taking into account their reintegration prospects once they return to their country of origin".

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Arkiveringsdatum 210520:

EU-parlamentet 21-05-19:

MEPs call for better protection of migrants from human rights violations till sidans topp

Parliament criticises the European Commission and some EU countries for overusing informal agreements on the return and readmission of irregular migrants.

On Wednesday, Parliament adopted a report by 358 votes in favour, 309 against, with 26 abstentions providing recommendations on human rights protection in the framework of the EU's external asylum and migration policy.

The text notes that, since 2016, the EU and some member states have made many informal bilateral agreements and arrangements with third countries on strengthening their border control and management capacities, fighting human trafficking and on the return and readmission of irregular migrants.

It also highlights several worrying trends and the practical human rights implications stemming from such informal arrangements, which are concluded without due democratic scrutiny and parliamentary oversight and are not subject to judicial scrutiny.

Therefore, MEPs urge the European Commission to negotiate and sign formal readmission agreements with third countries. They note the absence of adequate operational reporting, monitoring, evaluation and accountability mechanisms to track individual cases and respond to potential violations, as well as the lack of effective judicial remedies for persons whose rights have been allegedly violated. The rights of asylum seekers are inherently dependent on having human rights violations assessed by a court, MEPs point out.

Overview of EU funds needed

A complete, public overview of EU funding to third countries to facilitate cooperation on migration issues remains unavailable, the report notes. MEPs call on the European Commission to ensure full transparency, including by establishing such an overview.

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Hela referatet (Extern länk)

Antagen text på svenska: Skydd av de mänskliga rättigheterna och EU:s externa migrationspolitik (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210504:

EU-kommissionen 21-04-27:

New EU strategy on voluntary return and reintegration till sidans topp

Today, the Commission adopted the EU strategy on voluntary return and reintegration. The strategy promotes the importance of voluntary returns and aims at increasing their share and number, while improving the quality of the support provided to returnees.

Voluntary returns are more humane, more effective and less costly than forced returns.

The new strategy proposes:

+ a more coordinated and integrated approach among Member States

+ stronger cooperation with partner countries to implement reintegration schemes

+ guidance supported by digital tools for a more functional EU return system

The strategy identifies challenges that complicate the uptake of voluntary returns and suggests a coherent approach based on measures under seven pillars:

- Strengthening the legal and operational framework

- Facilitating effective coordination between all stakeholders

- Supporting voluntary return and reintegration of migrants located in non-EU countries

- Improving return counselling and referral practices through dedicated tools and guidance

- Promoting common quality support

- Fostering the sustainability and the ownership of reintegration in partner countries

- Using financial resources in a better coordinated manner

Next steps

The Commission, together with the High Representative, EU Member States, Frontex, EU Delegations and partner countries, alongside the wide range of stakeholders and international organisations involved, will work to implement the strategy. The Commission will also monitor the implementation of the strategy, notably in the context of the European Migration Network and in regular discussions with the European Parliament and with Member States in the Council.

Artikeln i sin helhet med länkar till bakgrundsdokument, Q&A mm (Extern länk)

Hämta meddelande COM(2021)120 på svenska om EU:s strategi för frivilligt återvändande och återanpassning (Extern länk)

Se även kommentarer:

Statewatch 21-05-05: Detention at the borders to increase "voluntary" return of migrants (Extern länk)

ECRE 21-04-30: European Commission Publishes EU Strategy on Voluntary Return and Reintegration (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210314:

Regeringen 21-03-12:

Fakta-PM om EU-förslag om samarbete om återvändande och återtagande till sidans topp

Faktapromemoria 2020/21:FPM 82, om COM (2021) 56 final

/Utdrag:/

Meddelandet innehåller förslag om hur återvändandet från EU:s medlemsstater ska kunna förbättras, både genom åtgärder inom EU och i förhållande till tredjeländer.

Regeringen stödjer åtgärder som bidrar till ett effektivt och gemensamt EU- system för återvändande. En väl fungerande och rättssäker ordning för återvändande är avgörande för ett gemensamt och hållbart europeiskt migrationssystem.

Ärendets bakgrund

I kommissionens meddelande om en ny migrations- och asylpakt, KOM (2020) 609, anges att ett välordnat återvändande är en viktig del av ett fungerande migrations- och asylsystem. I syfte att bidra till en sådan ordning har kommissionen presenterat ett antal förslag på området.

1.2Förslagets innehåll

Kommissionen redogör inte för några nya förslag i det nu aktuella meddelandet, utan upprepar i huvudsak de förslag som redan har presenterats i meddelandet om den nya migrations- och asylpakten (se faktapromemoria 2020/21:FPM19). Kommissionen uttrycker bland annat en uppmaning att slutföra de redan pågående förhandlingarna om det reviderade återvändandedirektivet, man konstaterar att det så kallade återvändandesponsorskapet bör utgöra en del av den föreslagna förordningen om asyl- och migrationshantering (se faktapromemoria 2020/21:FPM20) samt att en återvändandekoordinator bör utses på EU-nivå. Koordinatorn ska med stöd av ett högnivånätverk bestående av företrädare för EU:s medlemsstater bidra till ett bättre samarbete mellan berörda aktörer på området. Kommissionen nämner även att man under våren 2021 ska presentera det redan tidigare aviserade förslaget om en ny strategi för självmant återvändande och återintegrering.

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Arkiveringsdatum 210226:

ECRE 21-02-12:

Commission publishes findings of third countries' cooperation on readmission till sidans topp

Following changes to the Visa Code in 2019, the Commission assessed the level of readmission cooperation with third countries and submitted a report to the Council. While the report itself is not public, a Communication published this week summarises the main findings of this assessment and sets out next steps regarding the EU's own return policy and in relation to third countries.

The Commission has completed its first factual assessment on readmission cooperation, an obligation that stems from the recently introduced Article 25a of the Visa Code. It is based on quantitative and qualitative data provided by Member States and Schengen Associated Countries and data collected by Eurostat and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) on return and irregular arrivals. The third countries covered by the assessment are not listed but based on the information regarding the selection criteria, it is likely to include around 50 countries.

While the actual report which the Commission prepared for the consideration of the Council is not publicly available, a Communication published alongside it summarises the challenges of return procedures within the EU and highlights the gap between the number of return orders issues and readmission requests to third countries.

The different obstacles that Member States face in returning people range from the level of cooperation of third country governments in the identification and issuance of travel documents to the refusal of some countries to accept non-voluntary returnees. Those obstacles are experienced differently, depending on which type of cooperation framework is used. Cooperation on readmission is improved through the deployment of electronic platforms for processing readmission applications (Readmission Case Management Systems - RCMS) and European Return or Migration Liaison Officers who are based in third countries.

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Läs mer (Extern länk)

EU-kommissionen 21-02-10: Return and readmission: improving cooperation within the EU and external partners (Extern länk)

Hämta dokumentet COM/2021/56 final (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 210208:

ECRE 21-02-05:

New EU agreement with Afghanistan amid deteriorating security situation till sidans topp

A new agreement called the "Joint Declaration on Migration Cooperation between Afghanistan and the EU' (JDMC) is set to be approved by the Council of the EU. The agreement which is leaked by Statewatch aims to increase deportations amid a deteriorating security situation for the civilian population and increased attacks by insurgent groups in Afghanistan.

The JDMC is the successor of the Joint Way Forward (JWF) on Migration between the EU and Afghanistan, which was signed on the 6 October 2016 during the Brussels donor conference on Afghanistan. The JWF was originally signed for a two-year period and expired in October 2020 after a two-year extension. Unlike the JWF, the JDMC provides the framework for cooperation for an indefinite period with the option for each party to suspend it only after prior consultation on an annual basis on the date of its signing. There are some changes in the new agreement compared to the JWF most of which reduce protection safeguards for individuals, particularly vulnerable groups, and introduces a set of measures that make it easier for Member States (MS) to deport Afghan nationals at a time of increasing instability and a deteriorating security situation in Afghanistan.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200913:

Statewatch 20-09-03:

German Presidency: how can Frontex help deport unaccompanied children? till sidans topp

The implementation of the new mandate of EU border agency Frontex is well under way, and the German Presidency of the Council has raised a question with other member states that is likely to spark controversy: how can the agency assist with the deportation of lone children?

The issue is raised in a paper that was circulated to national delegations in the Council's Integration, Migration and Expulsion (IMEX) working party on 31 August, which seeks views on "Member States' needs, potential organisational or legal requirements and/or challenges," with regard to forced removals, so that "recommendations for implementation by Frontex" can be developed.

The intention is to propel the implementation of Frontex's new mandate, based on legislation agreed in late 2019, which gives the agency significant new powers in the field of deportations - as explained in the recent Statewatch report, Deportation Union.

Deporting unaccompanied children

Specifically, the Presidency's document asks other delegations:

"What do you consider being best practices in preparing returns of (unaccompanied) minors (e.g. in terms of taking the child's best interest into account, providing age-appropriate information, offering counselling services, taking family unity into account, sharing best practices for member state officials involved in the return of minors)?

Does your Member State see a scope for support from Frontex? And if so, how could Frontex provide support with regard to the various stages of return?"

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Arkiveringsdatum 200831:

Statewatch 20-08-21:

EU's planned 'deportation machine': expensive, dangerous and lacking in transparency till sidans topp

Plans to increase the number of deportations from the EU will cost hundreds of millions of euros, create giant, opaque and unaccountable agencies and further undermine claims that the EU occupies the moral high ground in its treatment of migrants, argues a new report by the civil liberties organisation Statewatch.

The report, Deportation Union: Rights, accountability, and the EU's push to increase forced removals, provides a critical examination of EU legal and policy measures designed to step up the number of deportations, in particular those coordinated and funded by by Frontex, the EU's border agency.

The plan is for the agency to assist with the deportation of 50,000 people annually in the coming years. Between 2007 and 2018, the agency aided in the deportation of some 53,000 individuals, including over 850 people who were expelled to Afghanistan and almost 300 to Iraq. Expenditure on a number of flights to Afghanistan was labelled "irregular" by EU financial auditors, but no one has been held accountable for this.

The vast majority of deportations coordinated and funded by Frontex head to Albania, Kosovo, Serbia, Tunisia and Nigeria, while Germany, Italy and Spain are the member states making the most use of the agency's 'services'. Frontex is due to be allocated a hugely increased budget in the 2021-2027 period in order to implement its new powers, with the initial proposal from the European Commission seeking ¤13 billion.

The plan to increase the number of deportations from the EU and step up Frontex's role will be aided by two other developments analysed in depth in the report: attempts to water down rights and protections set out in the EU law governing deportation proceedings; and an increase in the amount of personal data on migrants held in EU databases, at the same time as facilitating swifter access to those systems.

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Hämta infografik och rapporten i dess helhet (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200624:

EU-parlamentet / Statewatch 20-06-15:

Damning draft report on the implementation of the Return Directive till sidans topp

Tineke Strik, the Green MEP responsible for overseeing the passage through the European Parliament of the 'recast Return Directive', which governs certain common procedures regarding the detention and expulsion of non-EU nationals, has prepared a report on the implementation of the original 2008 Return Directive. It criticises the Commission's emphasis, since 2017, on punitive enforcement measures, at the expense of alternatives that have not been fully explored or implemented by the Commission or the member states, despite the 2008 legislation providing for them.

From the explanatory statement:

"This Report, highlighting several gaps in the implementation of the Return Directive, is not intended to substitute the still overdue fully-fledged implementation assessment of the Commission. It calls on Member States to ensure compliance with the Return Directive and on the Commission to ensure timely and proper monitoring and support for its implementation, and to enforce compliance if necessary.

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With a view to the dual objective of the Return Directive, notably promoting effective returns and ensuring that returns comply with fundamental rights and procedural safeguards, this Report shows that the Directive allows for and supports effective returns, but that most factors impeding effective return are absent in the current discourse, as the effectiveness is mainly stressed and understood as return rate."

Artikeln med länkar till rapporten och annan information på EU-parlamentets sida (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 200523:

EU Presidency / Statewatch 20-05-11:

Council considers action on "non-removable" irregular migrants till sidans topp

The Croatian Presidency of the Council has raised the prospect of EU measures to deal with "non-removable" irregular migrants - people who for a variety of reasons "end up in a situation of prolonged illegal stay, which can last for a number of years."

In a paper discussed last week at a meeting of the Council's Working Party on Integration, Migration and Expulsion, the Presidency asks four questions:

1. How is the issue of third-country nationals in a situation of prolonged illegal stay addressed nationally?

2. What measures are taken to promote the return of such third-country nationals and are they proving effective? What other measures could be taken to promote return?

3. Could the granting of any rights in addition to the basic minimum safeguards as provided for in Article 14 of the Return Directive to this category of persons be regarded as a pull factor? If so, what alternative solutions might there be, and can you share any best practices in this regard?

4. Do you consider that harmonisation of measures or a coordinated EU approach to measures as regards third-country nationals in a situation of prolonged illegal stay could help to deal with this challenge?

The paper says that "return of illegally staying third-country nationals is becoming increasingly important," because of an ongoing high number of refused asylum applications and a low EU "return rate", which "has not exceed [sic] 40% in the last few years".

While there is no common EU legal definition of this group, they could be considered as:

"a category of third-country nationals who have been issued with a return decision which has become enforceable, but certain circumstances (e.g. compliance with the principle of non-refoulement, inability to establish identity and country of origin/previous residence, health issues, lack of cooperation from the third country) prevent their return."

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Arkiveringsdatum 200426:

EU-kommissionen 20-04-16:

Coronavirus: relevant EU rules on asylum and return procedures and on resettlement till sidans topp

Today, the Commission adopted guidance on the implementation of relevant EU rules on asylum and return procedures and on resettlement in the context of the coronavirus pandemic, which it will present to Member States. This responds to Member States' request for advice on ways to ensure the continuity of procedures and the respect of, at a minimum, basic rights. The guidance was prepared with the support of the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), and in cooperation with national authorities.

/Utdrag ur "Vägledning om genomförandet av relevanta EU-bestämmelser på området asyl- och återvändandeförfaranden samt om vidarebosättning":/

(...) Omfattningen av det överhängande globala hotet framhäver hur absolut nödvändig EU-samordning är för att maximera den potentiella effekten av åtgärder som vidtas på nationell nivå.

Kommissionen antog mot denna bakgrund den 16 mars 2020 ett meddelande till Europaparlamentet, Europeiska rådet och rådet där den efterlyste tillfälliga restriktioner för icke nödvändiga resor till EU med tanke på covid-19. Undantag görs från dessa tillfälliga restriktioner för personer som är i behov av internationellt skydd eller som måste tillåtas resa in på medlemsstaternas territorium av andra humanitära skäl. Åtgärder som medlemsstaterna vidtar för att begränsa den vidare spridningen av covid-19 bör baseras på riskbedömningar och vetenskapliga utlåtanden och måste bibehålla rimliga proportioner. Alla begränsningar som rör asyl, återvändande och vidarebosättning måste vara proportionerliga, genomföras på ett icke-diskriminerande sätt och ta hänsyn till principen om non-refoulement och skyldigheter enligt internationell rätt.

(...)

Hämta guidance, pressmeddelande mm (Extern länk)

COM(2020) 148, Meddelande från kommissionen om bedömningen av tillämpningen av de tillfälliga restriktionerna för icke nödvändiga resor till EU (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 191214:

ECRE 19-11-29:

Finnish presidency pushes for widening leverage on returns till sidans topp

In a discussion paper for EU member states representatives published by Statewatch, the Finnish presidency of the Council proposed concrete options to enhance the leverage of the EU to bring third countries to cooperate on readmission of their nationals. The punitive mechanism integrated in the visa code shall serve as a model for other policy areas.

The document with the subject "Policies and tools to enhance readmission cooperation" was sent to the Council's High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration/ Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA) on November 8, to serve as a basis for discussions among member state representatives.

Based on a broad consensus among Commission, the European Council and Member States to make migration-related issues an integral part of relations with other countries, it states that finding new ways to enhance readmission cooperation with third countries has been one of the priorities of the Finnish Presidency.

As concrete procedures for situations in which a third country systematically refuses to cooperate on returns and readmission the paper suggests using the amendment of the visa code, in effect by February 2020, as a model that could be extended to other policy areas. Under the new visa code the Commission conducts an assessment of a country's willingness to cooperate on readmission and, accordingly, can propose the Council to adopt a decision to apply visa restrictions or visa facilitation for a particular country as a punitive or incentivising measure to achieve better cooperation. A new, more generally applicable "informal readmission leverage mechanism" could be based on the same assessment. The Council could then invite the Commission and the Member States to identify measures at EU and national level that are appropriate and could be used as a leverage to enhance cooperation on readmission, taking into account the overall relations of the EU and the third country in question.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190912:

Statewatch Analysis 19-09-11:

New EU deportation law breaches fundamental rights standards and should be rejected till sidans topp

A proposed new EU law governing standards and procedures for deportations would breach fundamental rights standards, massively expand the use of detention, limit appeal rights and undermine 'voluntary' return initiatives. It should be rejected by the European Parliament and the Council, argues a new analysis published today by Statewatch.

The original Returns Directive was agreed in 2008, but a proposal for a 'recast' version was published by the European Commission in September 2018 as one a number of measures aiming to crack down on "illegally staying third-country nationals" in the EU.

The proposal aims to increase the number of deportations from the EU by reducing or eliminating existing safeguards for those facing deportation proceedings - but even if such a method could be considered legitimate, there is no evidence to suggest that the proposed measures will have the intended effect.

For example, the proposal introduces numerous new grounds for placing migrants in detention and would introduce a new 'minimum maximum' period of detention of at least three months.

However, in 2017, Spain (with a maximum detention period of 60 days) had a 'return rate' of 37%, while the return rate from countries with a detention limit of 18 months (the maximum period permitted under the current Returns Directive) differed significantly: 11% in the Czech Republic, 18% in Belgium, 40% in Greece and 46% in Germany.

The report urges EU lawmakers to discard the proposal and focus on alternative measures that would be less harmful to individuals. It includes an article-by-article analysis of the Commission's proposal and the positions of the European Parliament and the Council, as they were prior to the EU institutions' summer break.

The European Parliament and the Council of the EU will begin discussing the proposal again in the coming weeks.

Fetch Analysis by Jane Kilpatrick: The revised Returns Directive: a dangerous attempt to step up deportations by restricting rights (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190801:

ECRE 19-07-19:

ECRE policy note: Return Policy: Desperately Seeking Evidence and Balance till sidans topp

ECRE's assessment of latest developments in EU policy and law of returns.

Since 2015 the European Commission and Member States have put considerable efforts into making returns more "effective", defined as increasing the number of irregularly-staying third-country nationals returned to a third country from the European Union (EU). The recent push for higher return rates from policy makers was caused by the higher than usual number of people arriving irregularly in 2015, a number which has since dramatically decreased. Despite this decrease, return remains a focus, with the trend for ever more restrictive policies both towards individuals and in relations with third countries.

Hämta dokumentet (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

Rådet 19-06-07:

Rådet enas om en partiell förhandlingsposition om återvändandedirektivet till sidans topp

EU arbetar för att göra reglerna för irreguljära migranters återvändande effektivare. I dag enades rådet om en partiell förhandlingsposition om det reviderade återvändandedirektivet. Förhandlingspositionen omfattar alla aspekter av den föreslagna översynen, bortsett från bestämmelserna om gränsförfarandet för återvändanden. Det beror på att tillämpningsområdet för det förfarandet fastställs i förordningen om asylförfaranden, som för närvarande diskuteras.

De nya bestämmelser som föreslås syftar till att påskynda förfarandena för återvändande, förebygga avvikande och sekundära förflyttningar samt öka återvändandetakten. Den partiella förhandlingspositionen omfattar därför

+ tydligare och snabbare förfaranden för utfärdande av beslut om återvändande och för inlämning av överklaganden, inklusive en skyldighet att utfärda beslut om återvändande samtidigt med eller kort efter ett beslut om att avsluta en laglig vistelse,

+ en skyldighet för personer som är föremål för ett förfarande för återvändande att samarbeta och möjligheten att vidta åtgärder vid bristande samarbete,

+ effektivare regler för frivilligt återvändande, inklusive en skyldighet att inrätta särskilda program i medlemsländerna,

+ en gemensam, ej uttömmande förteckning med objektiva kriterier för fastställande av risken för att personer avviker,

+ möjligheten att hålla tredjelandsmedborgare i förvar om de utgör en risk för den allmänna ordningen, den allmänna säkerheten eller den nationella säkerheten,

+ som en sista utväg, och om ett antal garantier ges, möjligheten att sända tillbaka en tredjelandsmedborgare till ett säkert land utanför EU.

Det partiella mandatet säkerställer respekten för migranters grundläggande rättigheter, särskilt principen om "non-refoulement".

Bakgrund

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Sveriges Radio Ekot 19-06-07: Lättare att låsa in asylsökande enligt Morgan Joansson (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190415:

EU-parlamentet 19-04-04:

Recasting the Return Directive till sidans topp

The Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee of the European Parliament is considering the 654 amendments, tabled in February 2019, to the European Commission's September 2018 proposal to recast the Return Directive. The Directive is the main piece of EU legislation governing the procedures and criteria to be applied by Member States when returning irregularly staying third-country nationals, and a cornerstone of the EU return policy. Taking into account the decrease in the EU return rate (45.8 % in 2016 and 36.6 % in 2017), and following European Council and Council calls to review the 2008 legal text to enhance the effectiveness of the EU return policy, the Commission has proposed a targeted recast of the directive aiming to 'reduce the length of return procedures, secure a better link between asylum and return procedures and ensure a more effective use of measures to prevent absconding'.

Hämta rapporten (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190209:

Statewatch 19-01-23:

Returns Directive: latest Council Presidency compromise proposal till sidans topp

"Delegations will find attached a revised Presidency compromise proposal as regards the draft Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (recast), prepared taking into account delegations' comments provided at and after the IMEX meeting on 3 December and JHA counsellors' meeting on 12 December 2018."

See: Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (recast) - Revised Presidency compromise text (15649/18, LIMITE, 20 December 2018)

The document contains 114 footnotes highlighting Member States' positions and concerns - but none of the Member States in question are identified by name.

The Commission proposal was published in September last year: Proposal for a Directive on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally-staying third-country nationals (recast) (COM(2018) 634 final, pdf) and: Annexes (pdf)

In an analysis of the proposal, Steve Peers concluded:

"This proposal is entirely concerned with facilitating the expulsion of irregular migrants, and detaining them to that end - in addition to imposing entry bans to make sure they do not return. The narrower possibilities to obtain a period of voluntary departure will mean surprise knocks at the door, detention time and forced removal for more irregular migrants. More legal challenges will be fast-tracked, with the time limits in this proposal arguably below the standards set by CJEU case law (see the Diouf judgment). More migrants will be detained, and the Member States with the most generous approach to detention time limits will have to be more stringent."

Artikeln med länkar till kompromissförslaget och till Steve Peers analys (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190123:

FRA 19-01-17:

Respecting rights for more effective return policies till sidans topp

Adequate and enforceable fundamental rights safeguards need to accompany proposals to return irregularly staying non-EU nationals more effectively, finds the latest Opinion from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights.

FRA's Opinion on the revisions to the EU Return Directive examines the fundamental rights implications of the proposed changes to the directive.

It shows how respect for fundamental rights is in the interest of the national authorities and avoids rights violations during return procedures. Violations can lead to challenges thatcan undermine the effectiveness and credibility of the EU's return policy.

Based on the proposed changes, key FRA suggestions for improvement include:

Avoid stricter rules limiting the use of voluntary departure while making it compulsory for Member States to have in place a national system for assisted voluntary returns. Narrowing the use of voluntary departure runs contrary to the aim of prioritising voluntary over forced returns and should be reconsidered. EU funding should be available to help Member States in all key areas to develop and carry out return measures in an effective, safe and dignified manner.

Ensure that streamlined return procedures do not increase the risk of fundamental rights violations. Safeguards are needed so that combining end of legal stay and return decisions does not hamper asylum claims and appeals. This also applies to obliging non-EU nationals to cooperate with authorities which could lead to revealing asylum seekers' information to their country of origin. Issuing entry bans without return decisions should also be avoided as expedited procedures might prevent people from exercising their right to be heard.

Safeguard appeals against return decisions. Five days should not be set as a maximum period for lodging an appeal nor should EU law prevent Member States from postponing returns during judicial review.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181204:

FARR 18-11-30:

FARR om EU:s återvändandedirektiv till sidans topp

FARR har lämnat ett yttrande över EU-kommissionens förslag till omarbetning av EU:s direktiv om återvändande. Det handlar om vilka sanktioner som medlemsstaterna ska ta till mot utlänningar som vistas illegalt inom EU, till exempel efter beslut om utvisning. Det nya förslaget innehåller ökade möjligheter till förvarstagande, kortare tider för överklagande och andra åtstramningar. FARR kritiserar att förslaget bara tar upp effektivitetsaspekter och inte analyserar konsekvenserna ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv eller barnperspektiv. Det finns inte heller någon analys av varför andelen som beviljas asyl varierar så mycket mellan EU-länderna, eller vad som skulle behövas för att fler skulle kunna få uppehållstillstånd eller välja att återvända frivilligt. Vissa delar av förslaget motsätter sig FARR starkt, till exempel att grunderna för förvarstagande föreslås utvidgas så kraftigt att i princip alla som varit asylsökande skulle kunna tas i förvar. Det finns risk att förslaget leder till att fler hamnar i limbo.

FARR passar i yttrandet på att påpeka att Sverige fortfarande inte har inrättat ett oberoende organ för övervakning av verkställighet av utvisningar. Behovet av detta har visat sig de senaste veckorna, när transportpersonal anklagats för misshandel samtidigt som det visat sig att utvisningar genomförs i hemlighet för Migrationsverket.

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ECRE 18-11-30:

ECRE publishes comments on the Commission proposal for a Recast Return Directive till sidans topp

ECRE has published its comments on the European Commission's proposal for a recast Return Directive. The Commission has billed its proposal of September 12, 2018 as a 'targeted review', however, its impact could be far-reaching, leading to increased detention, including at the EU's external borders, and a lowering of safeguards to the detriment of third-country nationals' fundamental rights. As it concerns a recast proposal ECRE has limited its analysis to the impact on fundamental rights of those provisions the European Commission is proposing to amend.

The European Commission's amendments include new criteria to assess a 'risk of absconding' - a grounds for detention as well as for not granting voluntary departure. This new list of criteria is so broad it could lead to systematic detention, reversing the presumption whereby detention should only be considered as a last resort and severely limiting individuals' possibilities to choose a more humane voluntary departure. There are more restrictions on voluntary departure, including instances where it would not be available at all. Legal remedies have been restricted both in terms of imposing extremely tight time-limits, as well as reducing the possibilities for appeal and the suspensive effect of appeal after the first instance.

There are new grounds for detention as well as a new maximum period of detention of between three and six months. The proposed new border procedure is extremely problematic from a human rights perspective. In particular, the link between asylum and return procedures, systematic detention at the border, detention periods, time limits for lodging appeals and the effectiveness of the remedy provided, the proposed fast-track return procedure - all set an extremely low standard, which is at odds with international human rights law and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181125:

Rådgivningsbyrån 18-11- 19:

Kommentar om EU-kommissionens förslag till reviderat återvändandedirektiv till sidans topp

Rådgivningsbyrån har inom ramen för Europaprojektet granskat tidigare förslag på rättsakter inom EU:s gemensamma asylsystem (CEAS) och uttryckt oro för att de förslagen -med vissa undantag- innebär ett försämrat skydd för asylrätten och principen om non-refoulement, oproportionerliga inskränkningar i asylsökandes frihet och en nedåtgående harmonisering av rättigheter och rättssäkerhetsgarantier för asylsökande. Dessa synpunkter har enligt Rådgivningsbyrån till stor del giltighet även gällande förslaget till reviderat återvändandedirektiv.

Många av de förslagna kriterierna för att bedöma risk för avvikande är enligt Rådgivningsbyråns mening godtyckliga och djupt problematiska. Att, såsom föreslås, beakta avsaknad av identitetshandlingar som ett kriterium riskerar att missgynna såväl personer med upplevda flyktingskäl som statslösa. Att beakta avsaknad av ekonomiska resurser och/eller avsaknad av fast bostad samt bristande efterlevnad av en tidsfrist för frivillig avresa innebär att personer med praktiska verkställighetshinder hamnar i en särskilt utsatt situation. Risken för avvikande ska beaktas både när det gäller möjligheten att bevilja en tidsfrist för frivillig avresa och när det gäller förvarstagande, vilket ökar godtycket i bedömningarna avseende dessa frågor.

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, Sveriges Radio, SvT, andra svenska media via Nyhetsfilter och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media till exempel via Are You Syrious och Rights in Exile, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, Statewatch och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Asylrättscentrum, Svenska Amnesty, FARR och #vistårinteut samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

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