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Arkivet har startat om och saknar material från perioden 180119 - 180513

Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

Springer Link 19-05-03:

Exploring the link between irregular migration and asylum: the case of Italy till sidans topp

Daniela Ghio, Gian Carlo Blangiardo

Many asylum seekers crossed European borders in an irregular manner during the last 2 years and completed their asylum procedure with a negative decision. Based on the limited number of effective orders to leave, it may be argued that a majority of rejected asylum seekers are de-facto staying in the European Union.

This paper aims to investigate the nexus between irregular migration and asylum. The analysis focuses on the case of Italy adopting a residual method. The amount of asylum seekers, who have the right of residence in Italy, is subtracted from the number of immigrants who entered Italian borders in an irregular manner from 2015 to 2017: the remainder amount provides an estimation of irregular immigrants generated by the failure of asylum procedure. A short-term migration scenario is settled for 2018 giving empirical-based insights to quantify irregular migrants who are likely to stay in Italy at the beginning of 2019.

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European Migration Network May 2019:

Annual Report on Migration and Asylum 2018 till sidans topp

Ur innehållsförteckningen:

+ Legal migration and mobility

+ International protection including asylum

+ Unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable groups

+ Integration

+ Citizenship and statelessness

+ Borders, visa and Schengen

+ Irregular migration including migrant smuggling

+ Trafficking in human beings

+ Return and readmission

EMN årsrapporter (Extern länk)

Läs eller hämta årsrapporten 2018 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190517:

UNHCR 19-05-08:

Confronting the barriers to IDP women and girls' participation in humanitarian settings till sidans topp

By the end of 2017, there were an estimated 40 million people internally displaced by conflict and violence, while during the same year over 19 million people were estimated to have been displaced by disasters. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 2017 dramatically demonstrated an increase in internal displacement across the globe with an estimated 30.6 million displacements. Although the numbers are high, internal displacement has not received sufficient attention from the international community and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable, struggling to access protection and their rights.

IDP women and girls are disproportionally affected by internal displacement both in terms of numbers and impacts. In most instances, gender- specific outcomes of internal displacement are ignored, despite the significant impact that gender has at different phases of internal displacement. Gender experiences influence the way women and men live which affects pre-displacement, the experience and the process of displacement and their choice of return, local integration and settlement elsewhere in the country, and achievement of durable solutions. In many armed conflicts, gender is an important factor that determines the cause of displacement as women and girls are systematically targeted as a tool of war.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190415:

Women's Refugee Commission 19-03-21:

Sexual violence against men and boys on the Central Mediterranean route to Italy till sidans topp

"More Than One Million Pains":

The Women's Refugee Commission is undertaking a three-country exploratory study on sexual violence against refugee men and boys, including those with diverse sexual orientation and gender identity and expression.

Every year since 2014, tens of thousands of refugees and migrants have traveled the central Mediterranean route to Italy, one of the most active and dangerous migration passageways in the world. Along the way, many experience kidnapping, exploitation, extortion, and enslavement. Large numbers die in the desert, are confined to hellish detention centers in Libya, or drown at sea. Sexual violence against refugee and migrant women and girls is rampant throughout the route. Women and girls also face sexual violence, including sexual exploitation and trafficking, in Italy. Less is known about the men and boys who undertake this journey. These knowledge gaps are of concern, given that an estimated 87.5 percent of refugees and migrants who have entered Italy via the central Mediterranean route since 2016 are men and boys, the latter of whom are largely unaccompanied.

The Women's Refugee Commission (WRC) conducted a qualitative exploratory study to examine the nature and characteristics of sexual violence perpetrated against refugee and migrant men and boys traveling the central Mediterranean route to Italy. We also looked at intersections with violence against women and girls. In October 2018, WRC undertook fieldwork in Rome and Sicily.

The findings and recommendations in this report aim to help international and national humanitarian agencies improve protection mechanisms and strengthen services for at-risk men and boys and male sexual violence survivors in Italy.

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ECRE 19-03-29: Study seeks to fill knowledge gap on sexual abuse of male migrants (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190111:

IOM 18-12- 21:

Better evidence needed to inform design and implementation of information campaigns till sidans topp

A new report by IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) reveals the limited evidence base for information campaigns related to migration.

The report Evaluating the Impact of Information Campaigns in the Field of Migration reveals rigorous assessments of the effects different types of information campaigns may have on distinct target groups are rare - despite the widespread use of such campaigns targeted at potential migrants.

A 2017 IOM study revealed that over half of the migrants interviewed in IOM Niger transit centres in 2016 declared they did not collect information about migration before they left. Of those who did, 74 per cent reported that they were ill informed about the risks and, more generally, the conditions of the journey, and that they mostly relied on information from family and friends.

Migrants often start their journeys with little or biased information. They often end in vulnerable situations by becoming victims of smuggling or trafficking.

This new GMDAC report is based on a systematic literature review of 60 studies from four continents (Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe), targeted at potential migrants and traffickers, as well as communities at large. GMDAC reviewed 60 evaluation reports of which approximately half were published.

Workshop-type activities and cable TV programmes or advertisements were the most popular communication tools for the campaigns featured in the 60 studies, GMDAC learned. Many of these evaluations reported the number and profiles of campaign recipients or beneficiaries; in most cases, however, impact was not directly measured. Much of available evaluations were based on anecdotal evidence or cross-sectional surveys of a small number of participants, sampled at convenience, meaning the results cannot be generalized.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181231:

UNHCR 18-12-19:

More refugees being helped by family, work and study, finds UNHCR and OECD study till sidans topp

Data released today shows that OECD countries have admitted more people from major refugee source countries on non-humanitarian permits than through resettlement schemes in the last eight years.

A study by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the OECD, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development titled "Safe Pathways for Refugees" shows that more than 560,000 people from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia and Eritrea entered OECD countries through family, work and study permits in an eight year period.

This compares to 350,400 from the five countries who arrived within the same period through resettlement schemes.

These figures do not include people from those five refugee populations who have been granted refugee status or humanitarian permits through national asylum systems and procedures. These amount to 1.5 million in the same period, highlighting the critical importance of fair and efficient national asylum systems.

Of all the non-humanitarian entry permits issued by OECD nations to people from the five refugee source countries, family permits account for 86 per cent, followed by student permits (10 per cent) and work permits (four per cent).

"While these pathways are not a substitute for resettlement, they can complement humanitarian programmes by facilitating safe and legal entry for refugees to other countries. Not only can this help mitigate refugees having to resort to dangerous journeys, it will also go some way towards alleviating the strains on major refugee hosting nations," said UNHCR's Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Volker Türk.

This study is the first, comprehensive mapping exercise of its kind, building on the commitments made by the international community in the 2016 New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants to improve data collection on resettlement and other pathways for admission of refugees.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181204:

Amnesty International 18-11-23:

A cold welcome: Human rights of Roma and other 'vulnerable EU citizens' at risk till sidans topp

Eastern Europeans, most of whom identify as Roma, are currently living in desperate and dangerous situations in Swedish cities and towns. In this report, Amnesty International explores barriers - structural, legal, and social - faced by EU citizens living in marginalization in Sweden. The report finds that the Swedish state fails to recognize the rights of this group. As a result, destitute EU migrants live in a social and legal limbo for years, without even a minimum of protection or support, while anti-Roma sentiments and anti-begging rhetoric permeate the public debate. Sweden has human rights obligations toward all people in the country, including non-citizens.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181125:

Global Detention Project 18-10-19:

Global Detention: Investigation into social media in the context of migration control till sidans topp

Physical Fences and Digital Divides. A Global Detention project investigation into the role of social media in the context of migration control. Part II: "Why Would You Go?"

"Social media at times will convince people to come to Europe, because of the things people put on Facebook-the lifestyle and so on. Maybe it does that. But I would never tell people to come through Libya, to make this journey."

Part II of the GDP's Special Series investigates how new information and communications technologies are used during irregular migration. Featuring on-the-ground reports, the paper examines the diverse ways migrants and refugees put social media to use during their journeys and helps address gaps in current literature regarding the role of digital platforms in contemporary migration contexts.

A key finding is that usage of digital tools is far more varied than the extant literature generally reports. Indeed, varying factors including socio-economics, nationality, and smuggling modus operandi considerably affect the use of such resources. Many sources, for example, emphasised the importance of community and diaspora networks during the various stages of their journeys and downplayed the role of social media and smartphones, which were often barely used-and sometimes not at all.

"Telephones were forbidden. We weren't even allowed to take telephones with us because the smugglers control you. Phone calls weren't allowed, even. We had to hide our phones somewhere because if they saw you had one, they'd take it from you."

(Part I of this Special Series is available to read online here. The final instalment, which will reflect on the lessons learned from this research to provide suggestions and recommendations for human rights practitioners who seek to harness social media in ways that emphasise harm reduction, will be released later this year.)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181018:

Amnesty International 18-10-05:

Refugee women speak out against violence, dangerous conditions and official neglect till sidans topp

Women fleeing war and conflict are coming together to fight against horrific abuses, including sexual violence, and to demand a better life in Europe, Amnesty International reveals in a new report published today.

I want to decide my future: Uprooted women in Greece speak out, reveals the perilous journeys made by women and girls and the terrible conditions and dangers they face when they finally arrive on the Greek islands or mainland. It also highlights the tremendous resilience and strength these women have shown in overcoming adversity.

"The abject failure of European governments to open safe and legal routes to refugees fleeing war is putting women and girls at increased risk of harrowing abuses," said Kumi Naidoo, Secretary General of Amnesty International.

"And yet despite the challenges and against all odds, these women are finding the strength to speak out. Those in power must listen to their voices and act on their words. In these times of #MeToo and #TimesUp, we are proud to stand with our uprooted sisters in Greece to say, 'We see you, we hear you, we believe you, and we will fight with you'."

Amnesty has spoken to more than 100 women and girls living in camps and other accommodation in and around Athens and on the Greek islands since March 2017. Based on their insights, today's report presents ten clear demands to tackle violations of human rights experienced by women refugees.

Women travelling to Europe are at particular risk of physical, verbal and sexual harassment by smugglers.

"When the European governments closed the doors to refugees, we women were more exposed to the abuses of the smugglers," one Afghan refugee told Amnesty International. "You cannot ask the police or anyone else for help because you are 'illegal'. Smugglers take advantage of that."

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Arkiveringsdatum 180804:

UNHCR 18-07-20:

UNHCR reports progress on health efforts for refugees despite record displacement till sidans topp

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has this week released its Annual Public Health Overview of new refugee emergencies and ongoing operations. Despite record forced displacement globally, the report finds that health services to refugees and other displaced populations are in most cases on track. However, communicable diseases, anaemia and stunting remain areas of concern.

The report notes that strengthened weekly surveillance of key health indicators among refugee populations during emergencies and systematic monitoring are contributing to prompt, effective interventions. The report is a snapshot of what has been achieved and highlights the trends based on key indicators in UNHCR's public health, reproductive health and HIV, nutrition, food security, and water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in 37 key operations. In 21 of these operations, UNHCR and its partners collect and analyse public health data using a standardized health information system to better protect and serve refugees.

The report includes, for example, the findings on the mortality rates among refugee children under the age of five - which is always an important health impact indicator in emergencies. Despite major refugee emergencies and disease outbreaks in 2017 - a year in which wars and persecution drove global forced displacement to a new high - this rate remained globally stable in post-emergency situations at an average of 0.4 deaths per 1,000 refugee children every month, sustaining the declining trend we've observed since 2011. The indicator is within the range reported in developing and middle income countries, according to the UN 2017 World Mortality report.

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Arkiveringsdatum 180718:

Science Advances 18-06-20:

Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seekers are not a "burden" till sidans topp

This paper aims to evaluate the economic and fiscal effects of inflows of asylum seekers into Western Europe from 1985 to 2015. It relies on an empirical methodology that is widely used to estimate the macroeconomic effects of structural shocks and policies. It shows that inflows of asylum seekers do not deteriorate host countries' economic performance or fiscal balance because the increase in public spending induced by asylum seekers is more than compensated for by an increase in tax revenues net of transfers. As asylum seekers become permanent residents, their macroeconomic impacts become positive.

INTRODUCTION

Wars in Syria and in the Middle East in general have caused a major humanitarian crisis. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported that there were more displaced persons in 2015 than in any year since the Second World War. Europe alone received more than 1 million asylum applications, a situation widely described as a "migrant crisis." This article attempts to quantify the effects of inflows of asylum seekers on the economies of Western Europe. We examine effects on host countries' economic performance, as measured using gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, unemployment rate, and public finances. Relevant economic studies have mainly focused on the effects of permanent immigration and have reported divergent findings; in particular, certain studies have stressed the fiscal costs of particular categories of immigrants and the adverse effects of immigrants on natives' employment prospects, whereas others studies have highlighted the beneficial impacts of immigrants on host countries' economic performance.

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, svenska media via Eniro och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media främst via I Care och IRR, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, ENAR, Statewatch, Noborder och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Röda Korset, Svenska Amnesty, FARR, Rosengrenska och InfoTorg Juridik (betaltjänst) samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

Bevakning: Josefin Åström, Hjalte Lagercrantz, Karin Nilsson Kelly, Sanna Vestin. Sammanställning: Sanna Vestin. Asylnytt är ett ideellt projekt.