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Fridh advokatbyrå

Sponsrad av Fridh Advokatbyrå

ARKIV:

Nya regler och lagförslag

Flyktinggrupper, landpraxis

Gränser: passage och hinder

Mottagande av asylsökande

Asylutredning och procedur

Skäl för och emot tillstånd

Tvång, hot och deportationer

Papperslösa, gömda, utvisade

Stöd och solidaritet

EU:s flykting- och gränspolitik

Allmänt om migration, statistik

Integration och uppföljning

Debatt och partipolitik

Kultur, personer, diverse

Flyktinggruppernas Riksråd, FARR

menybox Asylnytt startsida Praxisnotiser Kalender FARR:s hemsida

Asylnytt - Arkiv

Allmänt om migration, statistik

Rapporter och forskning

Information från myndigheter och organisationer

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Arkivet har startat om och saknar material från perioden 180119 - 180513

Arkiveringsdatum 200523:

Frontiers in Sociology 20-03-13:

Accounts of migrants' and refugees' healthcare access across Europe till sidans topp

Policy makers', NGO, and healthcare workers' accounts of migrants' and refugees' healthcare access across Europe - Human rights and citizenship based claims

Hannah Bradby, Adele Lebano, Sarah Hamed, Alejandro Gil-Salmerón, Estrella Durá-Ferrandis, Jorge Garcés-Ferrer, William Sherlaw, Iva Christova, Pania Karnaki, Dina Zota and Elena Riza on behalf of the MigHealthCare Consortium

/Authors from departments and centers in Sweden, Spain, France, Bulgaria, Greece/

Freely available healthcare, universally accessible to the population of citizens, is a key ideal for European welfare systems. As labor migration of the twentieth century gave way to the globalized streams of the twenty-first century, new challenges to fulfilling these ideals have emerged. The principle of freedom of movement, together with large-scale forced migration have led to large scale movements of people, making new demands on European healthcare systems which had previously been largely focused on meeting sedentary local populations' needs. Drawing on interviews with service providers working for NGOs and public healthcare systems and with policy makers across 10 European countries, this paper considers how forced migrants' healthcare needs are addressed by national health systems, with factors hindering access at organizational and individual level in particular focus. The ways in which refugees' and migrants' healthcare access is prevented are considered in terms of claims based on citizenship and on the human right to health and healthcare. Where claims based on citizenship are denied and there is no means of asserting the human right to health, migrants are caught in a new form of inequality.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200426:

Justitiedepartementet 20-04-16:

Tilläggsdirektiv till delegationen för migrationsstudier, Delmi till sidans topp

Förlängd tid för uppdraget

Regeringen beslutade den 21 november 2013 kommittédirektiv en delegation för migrationsstudier (dir. 2013:102). Enligt utredningens direktiv ska regeringen följa delegationens arbete och senast under 2017 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas därefter.

Regeringen beslutade den 19 januari 2017 i tilläggsdirektiv (dir. 2017:5) att förlänga utredningstiden och senast under 2020 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

Utredningstiden förlängs. Regeringen avser att senast under 2024 utreda hur delegationens verksamhet bör bedrivas och under 2025 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200410:

FRA 20-03-30:

Migrant children continue to face serious risks across Europe till sidans topp

In a year that marked 30 years of the United Nation's child rights convention, 2019 saw many migrant children in the EU with their rights under threat. The latest report from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights draws attention to the plight of migrant children as they enter and stay in the EU or return to their home countries.

The 'Children in migration in 2019' report looks at the migration situation in 2019. It pulls together the main issues identified in FRA's Quarterly Bulletins on migration in selected EU Member States.

In 2019, Member States apprehended over 140,000 migrants entering the EU unauthorised. About 33,000 were children. Over 5,000 were unaccompanied.

This exposes children to greater risk - the risk of violence, exploitation, trafficking and abuse.

The latest FRA report highlights the 10 main challenges migrant children face. These include:

1. The risk of death or injury when trying to enter the EU by sea or land.

2. Being stranded - In 2019, twice as many rescue vessels could not dock immediately compared to 2018. This left over 780 children stranded on board, often in bad weather and in poor health for over a week.

3. Being pushed back, sometimes violently, at the border without assessing whether they are at risk of persecution or danger. This contravenes international and EU law. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) estimate that authorities pushed back at least 1,230 children on the Western Balkan route.

4. Not enough space in reception centres for asylum-seeking children, particularly unaccompanied children with special protection needs. This applied to Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.

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Europarådet 20-03-27:

Final report on refugee and migrant children in Europe till sidans topp

Migration and refugees: Council of Europe presents achievements and sets out new objectives

In a report published today, the Council of Europe takes stock of achievements and sets out new objectives for protecting vulnerable migrants and refugees, including children.

"The Council of Europe will continue to play a key role in the protection and promotion of human rights of the most vulnerable, such as refugee and migrant children. Their protection is a long-term commitment", said Council of Europe Secretary General, Marija Pejcinovic Buric

The Special Representative on Migration and Refugees, Drahoslav Stefánek, presented the Final Report of the implementation of the Action Plan on protecting refugee and migrant children in Europe (2017-2019) to the Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers.

"We have largely attained the objectives through concrete actions, such as Committee of Ministers recommendations, practical guidance and sharing good practices. At the same time, several new activities have been carried out in the areas of alternatives to immigration detention, education, social inclusion, and human rights training courses. Other areas we need to explore are the rights of refugee and migrant women, border procedures and returns, but above all, there is a need to pursue a more positive narrative and a more constructive approach towards migrants and refugees", said the Special Representative.

In addition, the Action Plan implementation process identified a need for a direct dialogue with national migration authorities, which led to the creation of a network of focal points from the member states. The aim of the network is to exchange good practices and enhance co-operation between the different stakeholders, including facilitating the sharing of information on relevant Council of Europe activities in the field of migration.

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"Refugee and migrant children in Europe"- Final report on the implementation of the Action Plan 2017-2019 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Refugees International 20-03- 30:

Addressing the threat of the novel Coronavirus in humanitarian emergencies till sidans topp

Introduction

The world is gripped by a truly global public health emergency. From New York to Wuhan, attention and resources are being directed to fight the spread of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus (officially, SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the situation a pandemic.[1] Healthcare systems in even the most advanced countries are being overwhelmed. As the pandemic[2] spreads, the coronavirus will disproportionately impact the world's most vulnerable, among them refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced people (IDPs). These populations must be included in the global response to the virus. This is essential to protecting not only these communities, but societies at large.

The scale and speed of the pandemic underscore how deeply interconnected the world's populations are. Nevertheless, at precisely the moment when global solidarity and cooperation are essential, many nations are turning inward as they seek to protect their citizens. But a virus does not respect borders. Nor does it discriminate. A truly effective response, not to mention a morally correct one, also must not discriminate.

The world's more than 70 million forcibly displaced people-including refugees, asylum seekers, IDPs, and other forced migrants-are among the most vulnerable. Already, their displacement leaves them disadvantaged in many ways. The impact of the epidemic both exacerbates and is exacerbated by the conditions in which they live. A series of factors make them extremely vulnerable to the spread of the virus.

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Asylkommissionen 20-03-30:

Asylkommissionen välkomnar bidrag till antologi till sidans topp

Asylkommissionen planerar sin första bok, en antologi med bidrag om existerande forskning, rapporter från frivilligorganisationer och andra inslag. Vi tror att de olika perspektiven kan ge en djupare förståelse av samhällsutvecklingen.

Asylkommissionen är fortfarande i början av projektet att granska vad som hänt asylsökande i Sverige efter 2015, och vilka effekter det haft. Mycket forskning pågår. Vi kan inte redan nu komma med kommissionens slutsatser. Men samtidigt genomlever många människor konsekvenserna av den förändrade asylpolitiken just nu - medan politiker och media fokuserar på andra aspekter och hur antalet asylsökande skulle kunna minskas ytterligare.

Genom en antologi vill vi kommunicera redan existerande forskning och en del av de erfarenheter som gjorde att Asylkommissionen startade.

Många förslag till bidrag har kommit in, från forskare och från enskilda med egen erfarenhet eller andra specifika kunskaper. Men vi ser gärna fler förslag. Professor Anna Lundberg och docent Sabine Gruber, Linköpings Universitet, tillsammans med docent Torun Elsrud, Linnéuniversitetet, utgör redaktion och kommer att granska förslagen.

Deadline för abstracts för forskare och andra förslag till bidrag är den 15 april.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200324:

Asylkommissionen 20-03-13:

Letar du ämne till din masteruppsats? till sidans topp

Liksom förra terminen efterlyser Asylkommissionen masteruppsatser om asylprocessen!

Är du intresserad av asyl- och migrationsfrågor i en svensk kontext, och har du skrivit en uppsats om detta, eller planerar du ett uppsatsarbete? I så fall tror vi att du vill vara med och bidra till Asylkommissionen.

Asylkommissionens fullständiga namn är "Kommissionen för granskning av lagstiftning, lagtillämpning och rättssäkerhet för människor som sökt asyl i Sverige under perioden 2015-17". Det började som ett samarbete mellan Linköpings universitet och Flyktinggruppernas Riksråd, FARR. Idag samlar vi ett 50-tal experter varav några med egen erfarenhet av asylprocessen och många från civilsamhällets organisationer.

Bakgrunden till kommissionen är de senaste årens allt mer restriktiva flyktingpolitik som motiverats med omsorg om samhället men har fört med sig negativa konsekvenser i form av inhumana beslut, ökande hemlöshet, kriminalisering, psykisk ohälsa, familjesplittring och fler utvisningar med inslag av våld. Asylsökande har pekat på brister i rättssäkerheten men förändringarna har försvarats av ansvariga myndigheter och politiker.

Exempel på områden som Asylkommissionen har identifierat som särskilt angelägna att undersöka kritiskt rör lagförändringar och deras konsekvenser; Brister i asylmottagande; Ansvarsförskjutningar; Åldersuppskrivningar; Domstols-praxis mm. Det är viktigt att beakta etiska aspekter och riktlinjer på ditt universitet när du väljer ämne.

Sprid gärna denna information till studenter, universitetslärare eller forskare du tror skulle vara intresserade! Om du har frågor kontakta din handledare eller skriv till Asylkommissionen@ikos.liu.se!

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Arkiveringsdatum 200306:

Europarådet 20-02-10:

New study on gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement till sidans topp

On 10 February 2020, the Council of Europe published a new study on Gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement: Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention. The purpose of the publication is to support the implementation of these articles by providing policy makers, border and immigration officials and practitioners with practical advice including definitions, information and examples of gender-based violence that may be recognised as forms of persecution or other serious harm. It also illustrates how to ensure that a gender-sensitive interpretation is given to each of the convention grounds, what are the requirements of gender-sensitive reception procedures and gender-sensitive practice and procedure in respect of refugee status determination, and applications for other forms of international protection. It discusses the additional protection of the non-refoulement principle and concludes with a checklist which summarises the requirements of the provisions affecting asylum-seeking and refugee women in Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention. The checklist should help in designing and implementing measures in law, policy and practice to implement Articles 60 and 61. This publication belongs to a series of in-depth analyses of articles of the Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention).

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The World Bank 20-02-18:

Understanding decisions made on asylum applications in host countries till sidans topp

Ismael Issifou

Abstract

Millions of forcibly displaced people apply for asylum every year facing uncertain outcomes. What can explain cross-country heterogeneity in these outcomes? This study provides estimates of the determinants of asylum admission policies in host countries using a bilateral panel data set covering 201 origin and 113 destination countries between 2000 and 2017. The paper shows that in high-income countries, unlike in low- and middle-income countries, approval policies are influenced by political factors such as political polarization and electoral periods. The study also finds that macroeconomic factors, labor market outcomes, and public spending can play an important role in final decisions on asylum.

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Amnesty International 20-02-27:

Americas: States cracked down on asylum and the right to protest in 2019 till sidans topp

As millions took to the streets to protest rampant violence, inequality, corruption and impunity, or were forced to flee their countries in search of safety, states across the Americas clamped down on the rights to protest and seek asylum last year with flagrant disregard for their obligations under domestic and international law, Amnesty International said today upon launching its annual report for the region.

"2019 brought a renewed assault on human rights across much of the Americas, with intolerant and increasingly authoritarian leaders turning to ever-more violent tactics to stop people from protesting or seeking safety in another country. But we also saw young people stand up and demand change all over the region, triggering broader demonstrations on a massive scale. Their bravery in the face of vicious state repression gives us hope and shows that future generations will not be bullied," said Erika Guevara-Rosas, Americas director at Amnesty International.

"With yet more social unrest, political instability and environmental destruction looming over the region in 2020, the fight for human rights is as urgent as ever. And make no mistake, the political leaders who preach hate and division in a bid to demonize and undermine the rights of others will find themselves on the wrong side of history."

Protest movements, often led by young people, rose up to demand accountability and respect for human rights in countries like Venezuela, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Haiti, Chile and Colombia last year, but authorities typically responded with repressive and often increasingly militarized tactics instead of establishing mechanisms to promote dialogue and address the protesters' concerns.

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Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 20-03-04:

Children of the crisis: Ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth till sidans topp

Volume 46, 2020, Issue 2. Articles:

Children of the crisis: ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth in and en route to Europe. Annika Lems, Kathrin Oester & Sabine Strasser

Family project or individual choice? Exploring agency in young Eritreans' migration. Milena Belloni

The border event in the everyday: hope and constraints in the lives of young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Turkey. Sabine Strasser & Eda Elif Tibet

Children, adults or both? Negotiating adult minors and interests in a state care facility in Malta. Laura Otto

Across the threshold: negotiations of deservingness among unaccompanied young refugees in Sweden. Ulrika Wernesjö

Being inside out: the slippery slope between inclusion and exclusion in a Swiss educational project for unaccompanied refugee youth. Annika Lems

The limits of freedom: migration as a space of freedom and loneliness among Afghan unaccompanied migrant youth. Francesca Meloni

Transitions, capabilities and wellbeing: how Afghan unaccompanied young people experience becoming 'adult' in the UK and beyond. Elaine Chase

Methodological innovations, reflections and dilemmas: the hidden sides of research with migrant young people classified as unaccompanied minors. Elaine Chase, Laura Otto, Milena Belloni, Annika Lems & Ulrika Wernesjö

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Arkiveringsdatum 200208:

Danish Refugee Council, Norwegian Refugee Council mfl 20-01- 31:

Unprepared for (re)integration: Lessons learned from refugee returns to urban areas till sidans topp

Lessons learned from Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria

Report from Danish Refugee Council, Norwegian Refugee Council, International Rescue Committee, Samuel Hall, Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat

This study informs programming and policies in relation to refugee returns and, specifically, with regards to their (re)integration within urban areas, with a focus on Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria. While millions of refugees return to poverty, conflict and insecurity in all three settings, a tunnel focus on returns rather than on (re)integration has limited value for long-term planning. Stakeholders, including communities and returnees themselves, have been unprepared for what happens post-return.

In this context, the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) have drawn lessons from recent responses to refugee movements in Afghanistan, Somalia and Syria. Return trends have shifted in each of these contexts in recent years, driven by changing governmental priorities and conditions in host and origin countries. Although return contexts are diverse, some patterns are common, and refugees' own priorities and actions need to be considered in order to build the way for effective programming.

Objectives and methodology

The main report supports the thinking and planning around (re)integration by examining patterns of return and identifying obstacles, including operational, policy and knowledge gaps, to support better preparedness for (re)integration. It asks: "How can returnees, receiving communities, governments and organisations be more effectively prepared so as to lay the ground and work towards sustainable (re)integration? What has worked and what could work?"

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Frontex 20-02-06:

Frontex to provide border security expertise to Commission's research projects till sidans topp

Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, will provide its expertise in the area of border security research and innovation to assist the European Commission in supporting the development of state of the art technology for the border and coast guard community.

The collaboration between Frontex and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs will be based on Terms of Reference (ToR) that were signed yesterday by Frontex Executive Director Fabrice Leggeri and the Director General of Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs Monique Pariat.

EU-funded security research enables innovation in technologies and knowledge that is crucial for developing capabilities to address today's security challenges and to anticipate tomorrow's threats and opportunities.

Over the last 15 years, Frontex has developed expertise in the area of integrated border management research and innovation, which will allow the Agency to assist the Commission in evaluating research and innovation results to improve border security, including improved maritime border protection.

Frontex will contribute to the effective implementation of relevant parts of the Framework Programmes for Research and Innovation (Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe).The Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2018-2020 for Secure Societies plans an indicative budget of EUR 118 million of EU grants for research projects under research topics in the area of "Border and External Security".

Within the framework of this ToR, Frontex, will:

+ identify research activities addressing capability gaps in the areas of surveillance, situational awareness, biometrics, cybersecurity and information availability and exchange;

+ translate these gaps into requirements for solutions to be researched;

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Arkiveringsdatum 200125:

Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung December 2019:

Solidarity Cities in Europe till sidans topp

Stefanie Kron, Wenke Christoph mfl

Across Europe, urban solidarity movements are gaining momentum. Under the label of 'Welcoming Cities', 'Cities of Refuge' or 'Solidarity Cities', civil society groups, local politicians and city administrations are defying the growing restrictions of border regimes and migration policies on the European and national level. At the same time, these movements develop specific municipal policies for the protection or social inclusion of people with precarious status. Finally, they act as discursive counterweights to the rise of right-wing parties across Europe who are pushing for the fortification of borders and the criminalisation of migrants.

The 'Sanctuary City' concept has existed in North America since the 1980s, when hundreds of thousands of refugees from the war-torn countries of Central America sought protection from persecution in the USA and Canada. The US governmentunder Ronald Reagan granted asylum to only a handful of these war refugees, leading to increased pressure from religious organisations and migrant initiatives on local politicians and authorities to protect refugees from deportation and to improve their legal status. San Francisco was the first city to pass a 'City of Sanctuary' resolution in 1985, followed by a decree in 1989 which prohibited municipal authorities and police from cooperating with national authorities in the identification, persecution, incarceration and deportation of non-status migrants (Bauder 2016: 176, Lippert/Rehaag 2013). This Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) policy spread quickly across North America. To date, over 500 American and Canadian cities and municipalities, as well as some US states, have joined the Sanctuary movement.

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Arkiveringsdatum 200107:

Global Initiative 19-11-29:

Economy of Detention in Libya: Understanding the players and the business models till sidans topp

The overall objective of this study is to understand the political economy of migrant detention in Libya, in both the official and non-official detention systems. The study was launched in October 2018 and the report was finalized in April 2019. The study was conducted by means of a qualitative approach, based on primary field research spanning four research modules: literature review, initial screening of detention centres in Libya, primary field interviews with migrants and with a variety of key informants (armed groups, authorities, smugglers, detention-centre staff, programme implementers). The methodology was route focused and, as such, involved interviews in four countries: Niger, Libya, Italy and Malta. A total of 85 key informant interviews were conducted and 75 in-depth interviews were conducted with migrants (160 in-depth interviews in total).

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Cadmus december yyy 2019:

Sea rescue NGOs: a pull factor of irregular migration? till sidans topp

Policy Briefs, 2019/22, Migration Policy Centre

Eugenio Cusumano, Matteo Villa

The argument that maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) operations act as a 'pull factor' of irregular seaborne migration has become commonplace during the Mediterranean 'refugee crisis'. This claim has frequently been used to criticize humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) conducting SAR off the coast of Libya, which are considered to provide "an incentive for human smugglers to arrange departures" (Italian Senate 2017: 9). In this policy brief, we scrutinise this argument by examining monthly migratory flows from Libya to Italy between 2014 and October 2019. We find no relationship between the presence of NGOs at sea and the number of migrants leaving Libyan shores. Although more data and further research are needed, the results of our analysis call into question the claim that non-governmental SAR operations are a pull factor of irregular migration across the Mediterranean sea.

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Malmö Universitet 19-12-12:

Flyktingars vittnesmål i Grekland synliggör osynliga gränser till sidans topp

Nyligen skärpte Greklands regering sina regler för asyl. Hårdare gränskontroll och snabbare deportationer är resultatet. En ny avhandling visar dock att Medelhavet inte är den enda gräns som flyktingarna måste passera.

Genom en gummibåt över Medelhavet hoppas många flyktingar passera gränsen till ett nytt liv i Europa. Men Ioanna Wagner Tsoni som på plats i Aten tagit del av flyktingars berättelser om hur de kom dit och varför ser hur gränskontrollen fortsatt även inne i huvudstaden.

- Gränser handlar om vilka vi är - eller vad våra dokument och vår biometriska data säger om oss. Det handlar också om var vi är i platsen, samhället och tiden, och hur dessa egenskaper uppträder i våra möten med andra, säger Ioanna Wagner Tsoni, som betonar att dessa gränser blir närmast osynliga för de priviligierade.

Osynliga gränser i staden

Gränser upprätthålls i vardagen genom möten mellan olika människor, visar Ioanna Wagner Tsoni i sin avhandling. Ett annat exempel är hudfärg. Hur du blir bemött beror både på vilken uppfattad hudfärg du har och vilket sammanhang du befinner dig i.

- En person berättade för mig att han tyckte om att ta på sig sina bästa kläder och ta en expressbuss till Atens finare förorter. Här kände han sig säker. Trots att han var svart skulle han här bli behandlad som en turist, kanske en amerikansk eller nordeuropeisk svart person, snarare än att som i centrala Aten omedelbart bli märkt som "illegal invandrare", säger Ioanna Wagner Tsoni.

Tydliga gränser finns även mellan turister och flyktingar. På ön Lesbos ville ingen att turisterna på den populära charterdestinationen skulle behöva fundera på öns många flyktingläger. Så även där fanns det en tydlig gräns vid den gata som gick mellan den lokala flygplatsen och den smala stranden där flyktingarnas gummibåtar anlände.

Tuffa tag blev svaret

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Global Detention Project 19-12-18:

Special investigation into the uses of electronic media in today's migration journeys till sidans topp

Physical Fences and Digital Divides: Final Report of the Global Detention Project

The "refugee crisis" helped spur a "tech turn" in how people travel across borders and how governments and others respond to these movements. Everyone from civil society organisations-including the Global Detention Project-and individual activists to humanitarian technologists, government officials, and international bureaucrats have experimented with social media and other new forms of digital technology to assist, prevent or otherwise influence the movements of people across borders. This GDP Special Report documents the trajectory and impact of these developments, exploring key new tools that have emerged in recent years, the uses of these tools by people on the move based on on-the ground reporting from key hotspots in the Mediterranean region, and the lessons we should learn as some of the early excitement and promise of digital humanitarianism have begun to fade. Smartphones, social media platforms, and other tech tools are today "migrant essentials" that can assist people in making life-saving decisions and bring public attention to abuses that migrants and refugees face as they confront the world's increasingly militarised borders. But they can also be exploited by unscrupulous actors in harmful ways and have unintended consequences. What lessons should we draw from this "tech turn"? In what ways can social media and other digital tools be used to reduce harms suffered by migrants and refugees? And is there a future for digital humanitarianism?

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Arkiveringsdatum 191129:

European University Institute November 2019:

Sea rescue NGOs : a pull factor of irregular migration? till sidans topp

The argument that maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) operations act as a 'pull factor' of irregular seaborne migration has become commonplace during the Mediterranean 'refugee crisis'. This claim has frequently been used to criticize humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) conducting SAR off the coast of Libya, which are considered to provide "an incentive for human smugglers to arrange departures" (Italian Senate 2017: 9). In this policy brief, we scrutinise this argument by examining monthly migratory flows from Libya to Italy between 2014 and October 2019. We find no relationship between the presence of NGOs at sea and the number of migrants leaving Libyan shores. Although more data and further research are needed, the results of our analysis call into question the claim that non-governmental SAR operations are a pull factor of irregular migration across the Mediterranean sea.

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ECRE 19-11-22: New research demonstrates that Search and Rescue is not a pull factor (Extern länk)

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IOM 19-11-27:

World Migration Report 2020 Launched till sidans topp

In a global media environment highly interested in the issue of migration, the need for verified, evidence-based analysis on this defining issue of our time has never been more urgent. As the UN-related agency responsible for migration, it has long been IOM's imperative to promote a balanced understanding of migration across the world.

Launched today (27/11) at the 2019 IOM Council meeting by IOM Director General, António Vitorino, the latest edition of its flagship publication, the World Migration Report 2020 (WMR 2020), continues the organization's commitment to providing information on migration that is well-researched, rigorous and accessible.

"IOM has an obligation to demystify the complexity and diversity of human mobility," Director General Vitorino told representatives of IOM's member states.

"As this report shows, we have a continuously growing and improving body of data and information that can help us 'make better sense' of the basic features of migration in increasingly uncertain times," he said.

First published 20 years ago, this tenth edition in the World Migration Report series provides the latest data and information on migration as well as analysis of complex and emerging migration issues. WMR 2018 was downloaded over 400,000 times.

Topics covered in the report include human mobility and environmental change, migrants' contributions in an era of disinformation, children and unsafe migration, migration and health (among others), which are not only timely, but are also highly relevant for both specialist and general audiences.

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Centre Delas 19-11-27:

Guarding the Fortress. Frontex role in the militarisation of migratory flows in the EU till sidans topp

The new report "Guarding the Fortress: the role of Frontex in the militarization and securitization of migratory flows in the European Union" intends to study and analyze the context in which the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex, is developed and implemented in the European Union, as well as its operation, mechanisms and main operations carried out. The research addresses the context that is built with respect to security policies in the EU, and specifically with regard to border and migration policy. As well as, the development of Frontex in this context.

The report analyzes the role that Frontex has in helping to build walls around the European Union, building what is called the "Europe Fortress", through maritime, area and land operations that criminalize people who have to flee their homes for force, whether from war or economic inequality. It is in this context that migratory flows are approached as a threat, so that they are approached with the same instruments as border crimes.

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Arkiveringsdatum 191120:

ECRE 19-10-31:

UNDP: Stark personal and socio-economic implications of lack of legal pathways till sidans topp

The report "Scaling Fences: Voices of Irregular African Migrants to Europe" released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) focuses on development related migration through irregular routes. The report concludes that migration is "a reverberation of development progress" and that the lack of legal routes has "stark personal and socio-economic Implications".

The report is based on statements from 1970 individuals from 39 African countries who have migrated through irregular routes and "whose primary motivation, in their own words, was not humanitarian or protection-related in nature". The report establishes that the people travelling are "relatively better off than their peers" in terms of income and education, yet 50 per cent do not earn enough to get by in their home countries. While the segment interviewed for the report has benefited from economic development in Africa over the last decades this process is "not fast enough and with gains that are uneven and limiting" and in fact fuels aspirations of social change and enables migration.

For the majority the irregular journey is a calculated risk, with just two per cent reporting that the greater awareness of the risks of irregular migration would have affected their choice to leave. The majority chose to move based on lack of opportunities and social exclusion at home particularly amongst the youth paired with a hope of fulfilling economic and social aspirations for them and their families. 78 per cent of those who were earning were sending money home.

The lack of legal pathways means that migrants are absorbed into an irregular job market including by otherwise regular businesses in Europe. A majority of those employed in Europe are earning wages "well below their host country's minimum-wage threshold", which exposes them to other "types of insecurity associated with work - further highlighting the exploitation contingent on their irregular status".

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 191025:

Asylkommissionen oktober 2019:

Ska du skriva uppsats? till sidans topp

Är du masterstudent och är intresserad av asyl- och migrationsfrågor i en svensk kontext, och planerar ett uppsatsarbete? I så fall tror vi att du vill vara med och bidra till Asylkommissionen.

Exempel på områden som Asylkommissionen har identifierat som särskilt angelägna att undersöka kritiskt rör lagförändringar och deras konsekvenser; Brister i asylmottagande; Ansvarsförskjutningar; Åldersuppskrivningar; Domstols-praxis mm. Det är viktigt att beakta etiska aspekter och riktlinjer på ditt universitet när du väljer ämne.

Om du har frågor kontakta din handledare eller skriv till Asylkommissionen@isv.liu.se

Facebook-event: Ladda ner affisch till studenter (Extern länk)

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Asylkommissionens webbsida (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 191017:

UNHCR 19-10- 14:

European States urged to do more to protect and support child refugees and migrants till sidans topp

European States must step up their efforts to protect child refugees and migrants who have endured not only difficult and dangerous journeys but continue to face risks and hardship once in Europe, including unsafe accommodation, being incorrectly registered as adults, and a lack of appropriate care, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has urged.

UNHCR's latest Desperate Journeys report, published today, notes that from January to September 2019, some 80,800 people arrived in Europe via Mediterranean routes - down from 102,700 in the same period of 2018. Of those who arrived, more than a quarter were children, many travelling without their parents.

"These children may have fled conflict, lost family members, been away from home for months, even years, with some enduring horrific abuses during their journeys, but their suffering doesn't stop at the border," said Pascale Moreau, Director of UNHCR's Europe Bureau. "Across Europe, unaccompanied children in particular are frequently housed in large centres with minimal oversight, exposing them to further abuse, violence and psychological distress and increasing the risk that they will move on or disappear."

Greece has received the majority of arrivals across the Mediterranean region this year - more than Spain, Italy, Malta, and Cyprus combined. So far, more than 12,900 children have arrived in Greece by sea, including almost 2,100 unaccompanied or separated children, many of them from Afghanistan, Syria and other countries characterized by conflict and violence. Conditions in overcrowded and unsanitary reception centres on the Greek Aegean islands are hugely concerning.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190912:

UNHCR 19-08- 30:

Mer än hälften av världens flyktingbarn i skolåldern saknar tillgång till utbildning till sidans topp

Rapporten Stepping Up: Refugee Education in Crisis visar att det blir allt svårare att överbrygga utbildningshindren i takt med att barnen blir äldre; endast 63 procent av flyktingbarnen går i grundskolan jämfört med 91 procent i hela världen. 84 procent av ungdomarna i världen deltar i gymnasieutbildning, medan enbart 24 procent av flyktingarna får den möjligheten.

"Skolan är den plats där flyktingarna ges en andra chans", säger FN:s flyktingkommissarie Filippo Grandi. "Vi sviker flyktingarna när vi inte ger dem chansen att tillägna sig kunskaperna och färdigheterna de behöver för att kunna investera i sin framtid."

Den kraftiga minskningen av flyktingbarn som går i grund- och gymnasieskolan är en direkt följd av bristen på finansiellt stöd för flyktingutbildning. Därav uppmanar UNHCR regeringar, den privata sektorn, utbildningsorganisationer och givare att tillhandahålla finansiellt stöd för ett nytt initiativ i syfte att kickstarta gymnasieutbildning för flyktingar.

"Vi behöver investera i flyktingars utbildningsmöjligheter eller betala priset för en generation av barn som blir dömda att växa upp till ett liv där de inte kan vara självständiga, finna ett arbete och bidra till sina samhällen", tillade Grandi.

Gymnasieinitiativet kommer att inriktas på uppbyggnad och renovering av skolor, lärarutbildning samt finansiellt stöd till flyktingfamiljer för att kunna täcka sina barns skolkostnader.

Årets rapport manar också till att inkludera flyktingar i nationella utbildningssystem, istället för att fösas ihop i inofficiella parallellskolor, samt att låta dem följa en fastställd, formell läroplan genom hela förskolan, grundskolan och gymnasieskolan. På så vis kan de bli behöriga att söka till universitets- eller yrkeshögskoleutbildning.

(...)

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Sveriges Radio Ekot 19-08- 30: Många barn på flykt utan skolgång (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190801:

Comparative Migration Studies 19-07-23:

The relational dimension of externalizing border control: selective visa policies till sidans topp

Lena Laube

The paper traces the crucial role of visa policies in externalizing border control. Since the European Union has agreed upon a highly selective visa policy in 2001, most neighbouring countries are (newly) confronted with visa requirements for short-term travel. Because of this standardization of travel opportunities, visa-free travel to the European Union has become a rare and valuable political asset both for third country nationals and their governments. Consequently, visa liberalization became a major issue in bilateral negotiations with the EU over cooperation in migration management and is frequently used as an incentive by the EU institutions. However, the EU is not the only cooperating partner that strategically engages in border and migration diplomacy. As the case studies of Moldova, Morocco and Turkey show, all governments involved use issues of mobility regulation as a foreign policy tool, though with varying success in regard to visa liberalization.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190721:

Mixed Migration Centre / ReliefWeb 19-07-05:

Everyone's prey: Kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration till sidans topp

The Mixed Migration Centre's 4Mi project gathers hundreds of interviews with refugees and migrants on the move every month and has developed extensive data sets across several migratory routes. This data indicates that kidnapping and extortionate detention have become a normalised part of the criminal exploitation of refugees and migrants on the move.

This Briefing Paper draws on published research and 4Mi primary data to deliver, in the first section, some general and global observations and case studies. The second part of the paper offers a deeper exploration of experiences from the Horn of Africa, using interviews with and surveys of refugees and migrants from Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia to illustrate the role of kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration flows along three routes out of the region.

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Wiley Online Library 19-07-07:

Back in Time - A temporal autobiographical approach to Afghan return migration till sidans topp

Marieke van Houte

Abstract

Repatriation programmes for refugees and asylum seekers are based on the assumption that going 'home' is the most desirable thing to do to restore the social order that was disrupted by conflict. Yet the often?limited success of these programmes as migration management solutions, shown in poor reintegration results and re?emigration, shows that there is a need for a better understanding of the lived experiences of (return) migrants. This article studies Afghan managed and "spontaneous" return migrants from Europe through an innovative temporal autobiographical approach, using both verbal and creative participatory narrative methods. I find that some migration movements were experienced as disruptive, while others were not, and that return sometimes meant a return to a previous life, sometimes a continuation, and sometimes the start of something new. I conclude that migration management programmes aimed towards "durable solutions" and the wellbeing of returnees should enable rather than constrain post?return mobility.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190703:

FRA 19-06-25:

FRA report calls for 'zero tolerance' of severe labour exploitation till sidans topp

FRA research published today highlights the urgent need for European governments to do more to tackle severe labour exploitation in firms, factories and farms across the EU. First-hand interviews with hundreds of exploited workers reveal the illegal practices in sectors including agriculture, construction, domestic work, hospitality, manufacturing and transport.

Many exploited workers are often invisible. But the workers' perspectives in FRA's report 'Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU' show how their exploitation contributes to the supply chains of the everyday goods and services we take for granted - from the food on our plates, to the shirts on our backs.

The report reveals that over half of the workers found their jobs by word of mouth but ended up in 'concentration camp conditions' where 'they keep us like dogs, like slaves'.

FRA researchers found that some of the EU's exploited migrant workers are:

+ paid as little as €5-a-day;

+ forced to pay debts to traffickers before earning a cent;

+ working 92-hour, seven-day weeks, with no holiday or time off;

+ sleeping in shipping containers, with no water or electricity;

+ monitored on CCTV 24/7 by bosses;

+ subjected to beatings, verbal abuse and threats of further violence;

+ given no protective clothing to work with hazardous chemicals;

+ face sexual and gender-based violence or forced into moving drugs;

+ threatened of dismissal and deportation when they ask for their wages.

The report outlines 13 actions for EU institutions and Member States to end exploitation:

End fraudulent or deceptive recruitment practices.

(...)

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Comparative Migration Studies 19-06-27:

Lost in limbo? Navigating practices of appropriation of non-deportable refugees till sidans topp

Sarah Nimführ Buba Sesay

Malta, an island-state, limits the mobility of non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers who want to leave due to the lived consequences of disintegration. Stripped of any legal entitlements non-deportable refugees only have restricted access to the job market, basic services, and health care. They have no formal legal status whilst their presence and stay are known by the immigration authorities. However, although non-deportability restricts refugees' mobility, they find ways to navigate the system governing their physical and social immobilities.

Based on (auto-)ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Malta and Italy, non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers' lived experiences of first reception in Malta and migrating to Italy are illuminated. While enacting their denied right of mobility, new challenges reveal themselves, resulting in a life in limbo that continues even after they leave Malta. Through the conceptual lens of the 'perspective of migration' we consider the making and unmaking of refugees' (im)mobilities. In doing so, we pursue a three-stage approach. First, we shed light on produced immobilities while in Malta. Second, we explore refugees' practices of appropriation of mobility and third, we turn to new possibilities and challenges they face after a secondary movement to Italy. From a micro-analytical perspective, we examine how non-deportable refugees navigate the system governing their social and physical (im)mobilities. Practices of resistance and conciliation are illustrated.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

Springer Link 19-05-03:

Exploring the link between irregular migration and asylum: the case of Italy till sidans topp

Daniela Ghio, Gian Carlo Blangiardo

Many asylum seekers crossed European borders in an irregular manner during the last 2 years and completed their asylum procedure with a negative decision. Based on the limited number of effective orders to leave, it may be argued that a majority of rejected asylum seekers are de-facto staying in the European Union.

This paper aims to investigate the nexus between irregular migration and asylum. The analysis focuses on the case of Italy adopting a residual method. The amount of asylum seekers, who have the right of residence in Italy, is subtracted from the number of immigrants who entered Italian borders in an irregular manner from 2015 to 2017: the remainder amount provides an estimation of irregular immigrants generated by the failure of asylum procedure. A short-term migration scenario is settled for 2018 giving empirical-based insights to quantify irregular migrants who are likely to stay in Italy at the beginning of 2019.

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European Migration Network May 2019:

Annual Report on Migration and Asylum 2018 till sidans topp

Ur innehållsförteckningen:

+ Legal migration and mobility

+ International protection including asylum

+ Unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable groups

+ Integration

+ Citizenship and statelessness

+ Borders, visa and Schengen

+ Irregular migration including migrant smuggling

+ Trafficking in human beings

+ Return and readmission

EMN årsrapporter (Extern länk)

Läs eller hämta årsrapporten 2018 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190517:

UNHCR 19-05-08:

Confronting the barriers to IDP women and girls' participation in humanitarian settings till sidans topp

By the end of 2017, there were an estimated 40 million people internally displaced by conflict and violence, while during the same year over 19 million people were estimated to have been displaced by disasters. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 2017 dramatically demonstrated an increase in internal displacement across the globe with an estimated 30.6 million displacements. Although the numbers are high, internal displacement has not received sufficient attention from the international community and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable, struggling to access protection and their rights.

IDP women and girls are disproportionally affected by internal displacement both in terms of numbers and impacts. In most instances, gender- specific outcomes of internal displacement are ignored, despite the significant impact that gender has at different phases of internal displacement. Gender experiences influence the way women and men live which affects pre-displacement, the experience and the process of displacement and their choice of return, local integration and settlement elsewhere in the country, and achievement of durable solutions. In many armed conflicts, gender is an important factor that determines the cause of displacement as women and girls are systematically targeted as a tool of war.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190415:

Women's Refugee Commission 19-03-21:

Sexual violence against men and boys on the Central Mediterranean route to Italy till sidans topp

"More Than One Million Pains":

The Women's Refugee Commission is undertaking a three-country exploratory study on sexual violence against refugee men and boys, including those with diverse sexual orientation and gender identity and expression.

Every year since 2014, tens of thousands of refugees and migrants have traveled the central Mediterranean route to Italy, one of the most active and dangerous migration passageways in the world. Along the way, many experience kidnapping, exploitation, extortion, and enslavement. Large numbers die in the desert, are confined to hellish detention centers in Libya, or drown at sea. Sexual violence against refugee and migrant women and girls is rampant throughout the route. Women and girls also face sexual violence, including sexual exploitation and trafficking, in Italy. Less is known about the men and boys who undertake this journey. These knowledge gaps are of concern, given that an estimated 87.5 percent of refugees and migrants who have entered Italy via the central Mediterranean route since 2016 are men and boys, the latter of whom are largely unaccompanied.

The Women's Refugee Commission (WRC) conducted a qualitative exploratory study to examine the nature and characteristics of sexual violence perpetrated against refugee and migrant men and boys traveling the central Mediterranean route to Italy. We also looked at intersections with violence against women and girls. In October 2018, WRC undertook fieldwork in Rome and Sicily.

The findings and recommendations in this report aim to help international and national humanitarian agencies improve protection mechanisms and strengthen services for at-risk men and boys and male sexual violence survivors in Italy.

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ECRE 19-03-29: Study seeks to fill knowledge gap on sexual abuse of male migrants (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190111:

IOM 18-12- 21:

Better evidence needed to inform design and implementation of information campaigns till sidans topp

A new report by IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) reveals the limited evidence base for information campaigns related to migration.

The report Evaluating the Impact of Information Campaigns in the Field of Migration reveals rigorous assessments of the effects different types of information campaigns may have on distinct target groups are rare - despite the widespread use of such campaigns targeted at potential migrants.

A 2017 IOM study revealed that over half of the migrants interviewed in IOM Niger transit centres in 2016 declared they did not collect information about migration before they left. Of those who did, 74 per cent reported that they were ill informed about the risks and, more generally, the conditions of the journey, and that they mostly relied on information from family and friends.

Migrants often start their journeys with little or biased information. They often end in vulnerable situations by becoming victims of smuggling or trafficking.

This new GMDAC report is based on a systematic literature review of 60 studies from four continents (Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe), targeted at potential migrants and traffickers, as well as communities at large. GMDAC reviewed 60 evaluation reports of which approximately half were published.

Workshop-type activities and cable TV programmes or advertisements were the most popular communication tools for the campaigns featured in the 60 studies, GMDAC learned. Many of these evaluations reported the number and profiles of campaign recipients or beneficiaries; in most cases, however, impact was not directly measured. Much of available evaluations were based on anecdotal evidence or cross-sectional surveys of a small number of participants, sampled at convenience, meaning the results cannot be generalized.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181231:

UNHCR 18-12-19:

More refugees being helped by family, work and study, finds UNHCR and OECD study till sidans topp

Data released today shows that OECD countries have admitted more people from major refugee source countries on non-humanitarian permits than through resettlement schemes in the last eight years.

A study by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the OECD, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development titled "Safe Pathways for Refugees" shows that more than 560,000 people from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia and Eritrea entered OECD countries through family, work and study permits in an eight year period.

This compares to 350,400 from the five countries who arrived within the same period through resettlement schemes.

These figures do not include people from those five refugee populations who have been granted refugee status or humanitarian permits through national asylum systems and procedures. These amount to 1.5 million in the same period, highlighting the critical importance of fair and efficient national asylum systems.

Of all the non-humanitarian entry permits issued by OECD nations to people from the five refugee source countries, family permits account for 86 per cent, followed by student permits (10 per cent) and work permits (four per cent).

"While these pathways are not a substitute for resettlement, they can complement humanitarian programmes by facilitating safe and legal entry for refugees to other countries. Not only can this help mitigate refugees having to resort to dangerous journeys, it will also go some way towards alleviating the strains on major refugee hosting nations," said UNHCR's Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Volker Türk.

This study is the first, comprehensive mapping exercise of its kind, building on the commitments made by the international community in the 2016 New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants to improve data collection on resettlement and other pathways for admission of refugees.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181204:

Amnesty International 18-11-23:

A cold welcome: Human rights of Roma and other 'vulnerable EU citizens' at risk till sidans topp

Eastern Europeans, most of whom identify as Roma, are currently living in desperate and dangerous situations in Swedish cities and towns. In this report, Amnesty International explores barriers - structural, legal, and social - faced by EU citizens living in marginalization in Sweden. The report finds that the Swedish state fails to recognize the rights of this group. As a result, destitute EU migrants live in a social and legal limbo for years, without even a minimum of protection or support, while anti-Roma sentiments and anti-begging rhetoric permeate the public debate. Sweden has human rights obligations toward all people in the country, including non-citizens.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181125:

Global Detention Project 18-10-19:

Global Detention: Investigation into social media in the context of migration control till sidans topp

Physical Fences and Digital Divides. A Global Detention project investigation into the role of social media in the context of migration control. Part II: "Why Would You Go?"

"Social media at times will convince people to come to Europe, because of the things people put on Facebook-the lifestyle and so on. Maybe it does that. But I would never tell people to come through Libya, to make this journey."

Part II of the GDP's Special Series investigates how new information and communications technologies are used during irregular migration. Featuring on-the-ground reports, the paper examines the diverse ways migrants and refugees put social media to use during their journeys and helps address gaps in current literature regarding the role of digital platforms in contemporary migration contexts.

A key finding is that usage of digital tools is far more varied than the extant literature generally reports. Indeed, varying factors including socio-economics, nationality, and smuggling modus operandi considerably affect the use of such resources. Many sources, for example, emphasised the importance of community and diaspora networks during the various stages of their journeys and downplayed the role of social media and smartphones, which were often barely used-and sometimes not at all.

"Telephones were forbidden. We weren't even allowed to take telephones with us because the smugglers control you. Phone calls weren't allowed, even. We had to hide our phones somewhere because if they saw you had one, they'd take it from you."

(Part I of this Special Series is available to read online here. The final instalment, which will reflect on the lessons learned from this research to provide suggestions and recommendations for human rights practitioners who seek to harness social media in ways that emphasise harm reduction, will be released later this year.)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181018:

Amnesty International 18-10-05:

Refugee women speak out against violence, dangerous conditions and official neglect till sidans topp

Women fleeing war and conflict are coming together to fight against horrific abuses, including sexual violence, and to demand a better life in Europe, Amnesty International reveals in a new report published today.

I want to decide my future: Uprooted women in Greece speak out, reveals the perilous journeys made by women and girls and the terrible conditions and dangers they face when they finally arrive on the Greek islands or mainland. It also highlights the tremendous resilience and strength these women have shown in overcoming adversity.

"The abject failure of European governments to open safe and legal routes to refugees fleeing war is putting women and girls at increased risk of harrowing abuses," said Kumi Naidoo, Secretary General of Amnesty International.

"And yet despite the challenges and against all odds, these women are finding the strength to speak out. Those in power must listen to their voices and act on their words. In these times of #MeToo and #TimesUp, we are proud to stand with our uprooted sisters in Greece to say, 'We see you, we hear you, we believe you, and we will fight with you'."

Amnesty has spoken to more than 100 women and girls living in camps and other accommodation in and around Athens and on the Greek islands since March 2017. Based on their insights, today's report presents ten clear demands to tackle violations of human rights experienced by women refugees.

Women travelling to Europe are at particular risk of physical, verbal and sexual harassment by smugglers.

"When the European governments closed the doors to refugees, we women were more exposed to the abuses of the smugglers," one Afghan refugee told Amnesty International. "You cannot ask the police or anyone else for help because you are 'illegal'. Smugglers take advantage of that."

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 180804:

UNHCR 18-07-20:

UNHCR reports progress on health efforts for refugees despite record displacement till sidans topp

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has this week released its Annual Public Health Overview of new refugee emergencies and ongoing operations. Despite record forced displacement globally, the report finds that health services to refugees and other displaced populations are in most cases on track. However, communicable diseases, anaemia and stunting remain areas of concern.

The report notes that strengthened weekly surveillance of key health indicators among refugee populations during emergencies and systematic monitoring are contributing to prompt, effective interventions. The report is a snapshot of what has been achieved and highlights the trends based on key indicators in UNHCR's public health, reproductive health and HIV, nutrition, food security, and water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in 37 key operations. In 21 of these operations, UNHCR and its partners collect and analyse public health data using a standardized health information system to better protect and serve refugees.

The report includes, for example, the findings on the mortality rates among refugee children under the age of five - which is always an important health impact indicator in emergencies. Despite major refugee emergencies and disease outbreaks in 2017 - a year in which wars and persecution drove global forced displacement to a new high - this rate remained globally stable in post-emergency situations at an average of 0.4 deaths per 1,000 refugee children every month, sustaining the declining trend we've observed since 2011. The indicator is within the range reported in developing and middle income countries, according to the UN 2017 World Mortality report.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 180718:

Science Advances 18-06-20:

Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seekers are not a "burden" till sidans topp

This paper aims to evaluate the economic and fiscal effects of inflows of asylum seekers into Western Europe from 1985 to 2015. It relies on an empirical methodology that is widely used to estimate the macroeconomic effects of structural shocks and policies. It shows that inflows of asylum seekers do not deteriorate host countries' economic performance or fiscal balance because the increase in public spending induced by asylum seekers is more than compensated for by an increase in tax revenues net of transfers. As asylum seekers become permanent residents, their macroeconomic impacts become positive.

INTRODUCTION

Wars in Syria and in the Middle East in general have caused a major humanitarian crisis. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported that there were more displaced persons in 2015 than in any year since the Second World War. Europe alone received more than 1 million asylum applications, a situation widely described as a "migrant crisis." This article attempts to quantify the effects of inflows of asylum seekers on the economies of Western Europe. We examine effects on host countries' economic performance, as measured using gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, unemployment rate, and public finances. Relevant economic studies have mainly focused on the effects of permanent immigration and have reported divergent findings; in particular, certain studies have stressed the fiscal costs of particular categories of immigrants and the adverse effects of immigrants on natives' employment prospects, whereas others studies have highlighted the beneficial impacts of immigrants on host countries' economic performance.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 171229:

Institute for Security Studies 17-12-13:

Nobody move! Myths of the EU migration crisis till sidans topp

This Chaillot Paper contextualises the dilemmas facing EU policymakers as Europe experienced an unprecedented influx of migrants and refugees in 2015-2016. Analysing and comparing the differing perspectives of external experts and internal practitioners, it examines how the EU's enlargement, neighbourhood and development policies evolved in response to the migration crisis.

The paper identifies nine important shifts in European foreign policy that took place during the crisis, offering an explanation of why each occurred.

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Arkiveringsdatum 171013:

Destination Unknown 17-10-02:

Youth on the move: Investigating decision-making, trajectories and expectations till sidans topp

A new study, Youth on the move: Investigating decision-making, migration trajectories and expectations of young people on the way to Italy, has been released - shedding light on what motivates young people to move from Africa to Italy.

The study was carried out by the Mixed Migration Hub and investigated why young people decided to travel and how prepared they were to do so, what influenced the routes and destinations they chose, and how they expected their journey and arrival in Europe to be. The assessment interviewed 81 respondents originally from West Africa, East Africa and the Middle East between the ages of 15 and 24, who arrived in Italy after March 2016.

The report found that political and security issues, often linked with economic worries, were the most common reasons which convinced young people to migrate. Unless this choice was triggered by fast-moving events, young people tended to leave before turning 18 to pursue their aspirations as part of a transition to adulthood.

The study's findings show that how prepared young people are for the journey varies. Most young people who decided to move chose their destinations after gathering information about the country and how to reach it. However, the information they gathered was not detailed or fully representative of the difficulties they could meet along the way.

The migration 'industry' differs greatly across the various regions of origin, according to the report. In West Africa, a greater number of stakeholders play roles in the migration process. Drivers, labour recruiters, housing providers, smugglers and other people offer a variety of services within specific locations.

Young people's journey from East Africa seems to be more organised, with smugglers taking care of transportation, accommodation (usually in warehouses) and providing food to their clients.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170901:

Refuge - Canada's Journal on Refugees August 2017:

Ethical Considerations: Research with People in Situations of Forced Migration till sidans topp

Christina Clark-Kazak

Research involving people in situations of forced migration deepens our understanding of their experiences and has the potential to inform evidence-based decision-making, but also poses particular ethical challenges and opportunities. This document is intended to provide researchers, community organizations, and people in situations of forced migration with information on the particularities of forced migration contexts to complement established ethical principles and frameworks on research with human subjects more generally. They draw on good practices identified in a scan of civil society and government documents and academic literature

Forced migration research contexts are particular several ways:

1. People who ee across borders are subject to legal rights and opportunities that are di erent from those for citizens born in the host country. The right to remain in the host country can be revoked or jeopardized on the basis of data collected during research. Given this precarious legal status, researchers working with people in situations of forced migration need to carefully consider ethical obligations to minimize risks.

2. Displaced people are often in situations of unequal power relations where they depend on sponsors, service providers, and/or the government for survival and/or legal status. This extreme dependence may call into question the voluntary nature of consent to participate in research conducted by, or in partnership with, such organizations.

3. Given the operation of groups deemed to be engaged in terrorism in countries of origin and asylum, research may run into conflict with anti-terrorist legislation. For example, research respondents may disclose links to, or express sympathy with the objectives of, groups deemed to have terrorist aims. Because researchers are not protected by similar legal privileges for doctors and lawyers, there may be limits to confidentiality of information, posing ethical challenges.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170712:

UNHCR 17-07-03:

Insecurity, economic crisis, abuse and exploitation push migrants to Europe till sidans topp

A study of mixed refugee and migrant flows by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has found that around half of those travelling to Libya do so believing they can find jobs there, but end up fleeing onwards to Europe to escape life-threatening insecurity, instability, difficult economic conditions plus widespread exploitation and abuse.

Foreign nationals going to Libya are part of mixed migration flows, meaning that people with different backgrounds and motivations travel together along the same routes, often with the help of ruthless people smugglers and criminal gangs. They include refugees, asylum seekers, economic migrants, unaccompanied minors, environmental migrants, victims of trafficking and stranded migrants, among others.

In recent years, the number of people crossing by sea from North Africa to southern Europe has increased. The indications are that this trend is likely to continue. Of the three main routes used by refugees and migrants to reach Europe - the Western Mediterranean route, the Central Mediterranean route and the Eastern Mediterranean route- Libya has become the most commonly used one, and also the deadliest.

The study commissioned by UNHCR found that the profiles and nationalities of people arriving in Libya have been evolving over the past few years, with a marked decrease in those originating in East Africa and an increase in those from West Africa, who now represent well over half of all arrivals to Europe through the Central Mediterranean route from Libya to Italy (over 100,000 arrivals in 2016).

(...)

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EASO 17-07-07:

Easos årsrapport om asylsituationen i EU och de senaste asylsiffrorna till sidans topp

I dag offentliggjorde Europeiska stödkontoret för asylfrågor (Easo) sin årliga referensrapport: årsrapporten om asylsituationen i Europeiska unionen 2016.

Under 2016 kom det in närmare 1,3 miljoner ansökningar om internationellt skydd i EU+. Detta var en minskning med 7 procent jämfört med 2015, då närmare 1,4 miljoner ansökningar kom in. Den stora ökningen av asylansökningar under de senaste två åren har emellertid lett till att besluten som fattas i första instans har ökat: under 2016 fattades närmare 1,15 miljoner beslut i första instans i länderna i EU+, en ökning med 84 procent jämfört med 2015. Besluten som fattades i andra instans ökade också under 2016; ökningen var 21 procent jämfört med 2015. Den totala andelen bifall i första instans var 61 procent och det var en ökning jämfört med föregående år.

Det största antalet registrerade asylsökande var medborgare i Syrien, Afghanistan, Irak, Pakistan och Nigeria. De främsta mottagarländerna var Tyskland, Italien, Frankrike, Grekland och Österrike. Jämfört med 2015 väntade 7 procent fler asylsökande på ett slutgiltigt beslut, vilket fortsatte att sätta press på asyl- och mottagningssystemen i länderna i EU+.

Krisen i Syrien fortsatte att vara en central faktor för antalet ansökningar om internationellt skydd i EU+. De allra flesta asylsökande var syriska medborgare och de stod för 26 procent av alla asylansökningar i EU+.

Över 65 000 ensamkommande barn sökte internationellt skydd i EU+ under 2016, en minskning med 37 procent från föregående år. Av alla ansökningar för ensamkommande barn som mottogs var 37 procent från afghanska medborgare.

Pressmeddelande och länkar på engelska (Extern länk)

De viktigaste slutsatserna på svenska (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170628:

Plan International 17-06-12:

Barnarbete vanligt bland barn på flykt till sidans topp

168 miljoner barn tvingas arbeta varje dag. I Jordanien har antalet fördubblats på mindre än tio år, och över hälften måste utföra farliga arbetsuppgifter. I dag på Internationella dagen mot barnarbete uppmärksammas kampen för att alla barn ska ha rätt till sin barndom.

- Vi hade inte mycket innan kriget bröt ut, men nu har vi ännu mindre när vi bor i ett flyktingläger. Så jag arbetar för att hjälpa min familj att överleva.

Ismail är 15 år och bor i ett flyktingläger på gränsen mellan Syrien och Jordanien. Hans bror är traumatiserad efter upplevelserna av kriget i Syrien och pratar inte längre. För att familjen ska kunna äta arbetar Ismail från fem på morgonen till fem på eftermiddagen med att leverera matvaror.

- När jag gick i skolan mådde jag väldigt bra, jag ville bli polis när jag växte upp men så blir det nog inte nu, antar jag, säger han.

Uppskattningsvis finns det 168 miljoner barn i världen som tvingas arbeta. Det är oklart hur många som lever med den värsta formen av barnarbete: trafficking, sexuellt utnyttjande, slaveri och rekrytering till väpnade grupper, men hälften av alla barn som jobbar utför farliga arbetsuppgifter.

De flesta barn som tvingas arbeta bor i länder som drabbats av konflikter och katastrofer. Problemen förvärras när de normala skyddsmekanismerna sätts ur spel och barn på flykt är särskilt utsatta. Barnarbete är en av de vanligaste anledningarna till att barn inte går i skolan, vilket gör det ännu svårare för dem att ta sig ur fattigdomen.

- I katastrofer och konflikter är det viktigt att utsatta familjer får stöd så att barn inte tvingas in i barnarbete, säger Lotte Claessens, specialist på barnskyddsfrågor på Plan International Sverige.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170613:

Europarådet 17-06- 02:

Immigration is instrumental for modernisation of societies and for Europe's survival till sidans topp

European states should acknowledge that immigration into Europe is both instrumental for "renewed dynamic and modernisation of societies" and for Europe's survival of the 'demographic winter' which the continent is entering, PACE Committee on migration declared.

According to the committee, the migrant and refugee crisis remains one of the main challenges facing European countries, which have so far failed to cooperate effectively in addressing its root causes. The crisis is in this sense more a political issue of migration management policy than of lack of resources or capacity.

In view of the "ever more urgent" need to find comprehensive humanitarian and political responses to the crisis, the parliamentarians adopted a draft resolution, based on the report prepared by Duarte Marques (Portugal, PPE/DC), which notably calls on European Union member states to implement rapidly the new Regulation on a common asylum procedure and to cooperate in maintaining and developing transnational information systems and databases on asylum applications and their results.

Council of Europe member states should respect the rights and dignity of all refugees and asylum-seekers ensure refugees and asylum seekers' access to legal protection and assistance and their right to appeal and align as far as possible levels of protection and social and financial assistance having regard to the cost of living.

The Assembly will discuss the text at its next plenary session (Strasbourg, 26-30 June 2017).

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Justitiedepartementet 17-06-08:

Regeringens skrivelse: Riksrevisionens rapport om lärdomar av flyktingsituationen till sidans topp

I denna skrivelse redovisar regeringen sin bedömning av de iakttagelser och slutsatser som framgår av Riksrevisionens rapport Lärdomar av flyktingsituationen hösten 2015 - beredskap och planering (RiR 2017:4).

Riksrevisionen har granskat om Migrationsverket, övriga ansvariga myndigheter och regeringen hade beredskap för en situation med många asylsökande och hur situationen hanterades. Riksrevisionen anser sammantaget att Migrationsverket och övriga samhällsaktörer i stort sett lyckades klara att ta emot och ordna tak över huvudet för det stora antalet asylsökande. Samtidigt uppstod fall där grundläggande mål för samhällets beredskap som liv, hälsa och rättssäkerhet utmanades. Det gäller särskilt ensamkommande barn. Riksrevisionen anser också att samverkan mellan ansvariga myndigheter brast, bland annat på grund av bristande kunskap eller oklarheter kring regelverk hos de inblandade aktörerna. Vidare anser Riksrevisionen att beredskapen var begränsad för en så komplex och utdragen situation som flyktingsituationen hösten 2015. Migrationsverket och andra myndigheter hade inte övat för ett så stort antal flyktingar och ett sådant scenario hade heller inte tagits upp i myndigheternas risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser.

Riksrevisionen lämnar fem rekommendationer till regeringen. Regeringen instämmer i flera av iakttagelserna.

I granskningsrapporten avrapporterar Riksrevisionen även en separat granskning av lärdomar från flyktingsituationen under 90-talet.

I och med denna skrivelse anser regeringen att Riksrevisionens rapport är slutbehandlad.

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Stockholms Universitet 17-06-08:

Så hittar flyktingar den farliga vägen mot Europa till sidans topp

Varför beslutar sig människor för att resa genom Sahara och över Medelhavet mot en osäker framtid i Europa? Och hur vet de hur de ska ta sig fram? Att samla information och kunskap om smugglare, rutter och tillfälliga jobb är det viktigaste för dem som vågar allt för hoppet om ett liv i säkerhet och trygghet.

Under två år har socialantropologen Tekalign Ayalew Mengiste gjort fältstudier i Addis Abeba i Etiopien, i Sudans huvudstad Khartoum, i Rom, London och i Sverige för att undersöka flyktingströmmarna från Etiopien och Eritrea till Europa.

- Det jag frågade, både mig själv och de jag intervjuade, var varför man gör ett så riskfyllt val. Och det finns många och komplexa orsaker. Trycket är stort på unga människor att börja tjäna pengar och försörja en familj, men de ser inga möjligheter att göra det hemma. Och när man väl gett sig av kan man inte vända hemåt igen. Alla vet hur riskabelt det är, men det finns berättelser om de som lyckas och därför fortsätter man framåt, säger Tekalign.

Eftersom det inte finns några formella sätt vare sig för asylsökande eller för arbetssökande att ta sig från till exempel Eritrea till Europa hänvisas man till att ta hjälp av smugglare och ta sig först genom Sahara och sedan över Medelhavet. Längs hela vägen spelar nätverk med andra eritreaner och etiopier som rest mot Europa tidigare eller bosatt sig längs migrant-rutten en nyckelroll. De som migrerar sparar telefonnummer och Facebook-kontakter och samlar så mycket kunskap som möjligt.

- Det byggs kunskap längs rutterna om var man kan hitta tillfälliga jobb för att betala smugglarna och skaffa sig mat och sovplats, och det finns kunskap om vilka smugglare som går att lita på. Det är just nätverken av migranter och smugglare som bistår med kunskapen. I öknen och i havet är smugglarna de enda som kan hjälpa dig. Tips och råd från de som redan gjort resan blir ovärderliga, säger Tekalign.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170530:

Tent 17-05-23:

Tent tracker: Public perceptions of the refugee crisis till sidans topp

A report from the Tent Foundation and Audience net

In december 2016, tent commissioned its second public opinion survey on the perceptions of refugees amongst the population of 12 countries.

Audience net conducted a comprehensive survey of 12,500 individuals from Australia, Canada, france, Germany, Greece Hungary, Italy, Serbia, Sweden, Turkey, THE United Kingdom, and the United States. The findings of this survey show that while the public has many conflicting views about welcoming refugees into their communities, there is plenty of opportunity to positively shift the narrative.

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UNICEF 17-05-18:

UNICEF kräver lagliga vägar för barn på flykt till sidans topp

Antalet barn i världen som flyr ensamma har femfaldigats sedan 2010. Det visar en ny rapport från UNICEF som släpps idag. Majoriteten av dem söker sig till Europa. Barnen tvingas använda livsfarliga rutter och utsätts för våld, övergrepp och utnyttjande. Nu kräver UNICEF fler lagliga vägar för barn på flykt.

Rapporten A child is a child visar de risker som barn utsätts för när de är på flykt. Situationen är särskilt allvarlig i Italien där 92 procent av barnen som anländer till landet är ensamkommande. Den centraleuropeiska rutten anses som en av världens farligaste. Under 2016 omkom 4 579 personer när de försökte korsa Medelhavet till Italien. 700 var barn. Majoriteten av barnens berättelser pekar på att de varit utsatta för människohandel eller utnyttjande på annat sätt. Det kan vara så många som 91 procent.

Orsakerna till att barn flyr ensamma är olika. Många flyr från våld, konflikter, förföljelse, fattigdom eller klimatförändringar. Andra har mer specifika anledningar som att förenas med sina familjer. Oavsett anledning finns det få lagliga vägar för barn att förflytta sig. Familjeåterföreningsregler är mycket restriktiva, humanitära visum existerar inte praktiken och andelen avtalade kvotflyktingar täcker endast 14 procent av behovet enligt FN:s flyktingorgan UNHCR.

I brist på lagliga vägar tvingas barnen att använda livsfarliga rutter och hamnar ofta i händer på smugglare och människohandlare. Våld, övergrepp och utnyttjande är vardag för många barn.

Alla barn har rätt att vara med sin familj

(...)

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Dagens Nyheter 17-05-18: Antalet ensamma barn på flykt ökar kraftigt (Extern länk)

ECRE 17-05-26: UNICEF and Hungarian Helsinki Committee release reports on children in migration (Extern länk)

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Europarådet 16-05-28:

Migration as an opportunity for European development till sidans topp

During its plenary session in Strasbourg, on 28 June, PACE will dedicate a full day of debates to "Migration and Refugees". The report on "migration as an opportunity for European development" by Andrea Rigoni (Italy, ALDE) will allow members to discuss a series of concrete measures aimed at facilitating mutually beneficial migration to Europe.

"The first thing to be done is to counter the negative rhetoric against migration and demonstrate to the public the economic evidences of its potential benefit to our societies. All public and private actors should be involved in the process of formulation of a new evidence-based migration policy for Europe, centred on the real economic benefits and prospects for development," Mr Rigoni stressed.

"At the same time, we will have to eliminate a number of bureaucratic barriers and practices of covert and overt discrimination against migrants, which significantly hinder their integration into host societies. To gain advantage in the global competition for the most highly-skilled specialists, European countries should increase labour market transparency and create more legal opportunities for migration to Europe," Mr Rigoni added.

The proposals contained in his report were unanimously adopted by the Migration Committee on 27 April. They include measures to facilitate access of migrants to the labour market, to enable the full and active participation of migrants in all aspects of life, to improve national legislation as well as to facilitate social security protection for all working migrants and their families. The committee also proposes the creation of a European Migration and Intercultural Development Observatory, which would assist member States in the development of strategies, legal frameworks, action plans and specific projects in the field of migration. Such an Observatory could be created as a so-called enlarged Partial Agreement of the Council of Europe, in cooperation with the European Union.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170515:

Action on Armed Violence 17-04-02:

85% of refugees in Europe are fleeing explosive violence, new research finds till sidans topp

85% of refugees in Europe are fleeing explosive violence, new research findsIn the first research of its kind, Action on Armed Violence (AOAV) has set out to examine the impact of explosive violence on the refugee crisis in Europe.

Interviewing over 250 refugees in the UK Germany, and Greece, AOAV found in The Refugee Explosion, that 85% of those interviewed had witnessed explosive violence. In total, some 69% had witnessed shelling, 61% airstrikes, 58% Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 39% suicide attacks.

Of those refugees questioned from Afghanistan, 92% had been directly impacted by explosive violence, and from Iraq 90% had been affected.

The findings are in line with other research AOAV has done. Since 2011, it has recorded 233,949 deaths and injuries from explosive violence from English-language news sources. 76% of these were civilians and when explosive weapons were used in populated areas, 92% of those killed or injured were civilians. Such levels of harm have had consequences - over the same amount of time Europe has seen over 4 million asylum applicants.

It is clear that the often-overwhelming numbers of refugees coming into Europe are largely doing so because they are fleeing explosive violence, and that this fact has not been fully realised by many European governments.

AOAV campaigns as part of the International Network of Explosive Weapons (INEW) to encourage States to sign up to political commitment not to use explosive violence in towns and cities.

Key findings of The Refugee Explosion

+ 85% of all refugees AOAV spoke to in Greece, Germany and the UK had witnessed explosive violence: 61% had witnessed airstrikes, 69% had witnessed shelling, 58% had witnessed IED attacks, 39% had witnessed suicide attacks.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 170330:

Europarådet 17-03-10:

Thematic Report on migrant and refugee children till sidans topp

Prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary General on migration and refugees

In March 2016, the Secretary General's paper on "Protecting children affected by the refugee crisis: A shared responsibility" (SG/Inf(2016)9) identified a series of immediate, priority actions for member states and the Council of Europe. They would result in improved safety for these children and enhanced respect for the human rights standards of the Council of Europe, with a special focus on children who are unaccompanied.

Since his appointment, the Special Representative of the Secretary General on migration and refugees (hereafter the SRSG) has carried out four fact-finding missions in order to assess how the Council of Europe can assist member states to manage the current migratory flows, while respecting their commitments under Council of Europe human rights instruments. The SRSG has also initiated consultations within the Council of Europe on ongoing and future activities on refugee and migrant children with a view to the adoption, in early 2017, of a transversal action plan on refugee and migrant children. Moreover, discussions have taken placewith other international and European organisations that are active in the field of protection of migrants' and refugees' rights.

This thematic report focuses specifically on issues concerning refugee and migrant children, including children within families as well as unaccompanied and separated children. Its aim is to identify key findings from the SRSG's missions in 2016 and to reflect on how priorities must be addressed, both as a matter of urgency and in the ongoing work of the Council of Europe, in the upcoming action plan.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170320:

Justitiedepartementet 17-03-09:

Utredning: Att ta emot människor på flykt Sverige hösten 2015 till sidans topp

Hösten 2015 kom ett mycket stort antal människor på flykt till Sverige. Utredningens uppdrag har varit att göra en kartläggning av händelseförloppet under hösten 2015 och att utifrån det analysera regeringens, de statliga myndigheternas, kommunernas och landstingens ansvar och beredskap inför situationen samt deras och civilsamhällets hantering av situationen.

Utredningen redogör för vilka lärdomar som kan dras för att stärka förmågan hos berörda myndigheter och civilsamhället att hantera en eventuell liknande situation. Det har inte ingått i utredningens uppdrag att lämna förslag till åtgärder.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170214:

Justitiedepartementet 17-01-26:

Förlängd tid för delegationen för migrationsstudier till sidans topp

Regeringen beslutade den 21 november 2013 kommittédirektiv om delegation för migrationsstudier (dir. 2013:102). Enligt utredningens direktiv ska regeringen senast under 2017 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

Utredningstiden förlängs. Regeringen avser att senast under 2020 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170126:

Statewatch 17-01-23:

Child mobility in the refugee crisis: What are the data gaps and why do they matter? till sidans topp

by Nando Sigona and Rachel Humphris

"Child migration into Europe is diverse and often invisible in data and policy. Legal definitions, bureaucratic practices, rights and entitlements of child migrants vary across European states. While some segments of this population are visible in public debate and datasets, especially unaccompanied asylum seeking children, others are hardly visible, particularly dependent children to asylum seeking parents and undocumented children."

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Previous, more detailed paper by the authors: Global Migration Data Analysis Centre Septemer 2016 (Extern länk)

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AIDA 17-01-17:

Asylum Statistics 2016: Sharper inequalities and persisting asylum lottery till sidans topp

Asylum statistics for 2016 in key European countries are in the process of being published by national authorities. This article provides an overview of asylum trends, up-to-date as of 24 January 2017.

Available statistics reveal sharper discrepancies in the distribution of refugees across Europe, as well as persisting disparities in the recognition of international protection.

Germany leads reception of asylum seekers

Germany, by far the main destination country last year, registered as many as 745,545 asylum applications. Only 280,000 of those concerned new arrivals, however, while the remainder were formal registrations of protection claims expressed in 2015. Despite a large influx of arrivals, only 476,649 people registered asylum applications in 2015. Until they are formally registered as applicants for international protection, people seeking asylum receive a certificate of "reporting as an asylum seeker" (BÜMA).

An increase in asylum applications compared to 2015 was also reported in Italy and France, where statistics refer to a total 123,482 and 85,244 claims respectively in 2016. Greece also saw a nearly fourfold increase in the number of asylum applications registered.

Most other countries remain far behind Germany and reported a decrease in the number of asylum applications registered last year.

The main nationalities of asylum seekers in 2016 remain Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. However, France saw mainly applications from nationals of Sudan, Afghanistan and Haiti, while Albania and Eritrea figured in the top three nationalities in the Netherlands.

Protection disparities persist

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Kristy Siegfried, IRIN in Rights in Exile 16-12-31: Migration trends to watch in 2017 (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 161123:

IOM 16-11-04:

Migrant Smuggling: IOM publishes first global report on evidence base till sidans topp

Migrant smuggling becomes visible when tragedies occur, such as people drowning or perishing inside trucks, but these events are likely to be just the tip of the iceberg. IOM's first global report on migrant smuggling provides a review of the emerging evidence base.

The report: "Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: A global review of the emerging evidence base" was launched this week (02/11) in Geneva and is the result of a collaboration between IOM and researchers from a range of backgrounds and academic disciplines. It was funded by the Government of Turkey.

"Reliance on smugglers makes migrants particularly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. In this ever more pressing situation, States are being severely tested in the fulfilment of their responsibilities to protect migrants' human rights and manage their borders," said IOM Director General William Lacy Swing.

"Against this backdrop, the report helps to deepen our understanding of the smuggling phenomenon and provides insights into how responses can be formulated that better protect migrants, while enhancing States' abilities to manage safe and orderly migration," he added.

The Permanent Representative of Turkey to the UN in Geneva, Ambassador Mehmet Ferden Çaržkçž said: "Establishing a good evidence base through proper research is absolutely vital to contribute to the development of better and more comprehensive operational responses to effectively address migrant smuggling, while improving the protection of vulnerable migrants."

The report shows that important research has been undertaken on the transnational crime aspects of migrant smuggling, including on routes, smuggling organization (such as criminal networking and facilitation), smuggler profiles and fees/payment. Likewise, there is an emerging academic literature on migrant smuggling, particularly the economic and social processes involved in smuggling.

(...)

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Arkiveringsdatum 161122:

UNHCR 16-10-25:

Afghan children in Sweden tell us who they are and why they are here till sidans topp

An unusually large number of unaccompanied or separated children from Afghanistan travelled to Europe in 2015 - more than half of these girls and boys arrived in Sweden where they sought asylum.

Who are they, why did they leave their country, how did the trip affect them and why did they choose Sweden as their final destination? To better understand the situation of these Afghan children, the UNHCR Regional Representation for Northern Europe recently conducted an in-depth survey, interviewing and leading focus group discussions with 274 girls and boys from Afghanistan under 18 who had arrived to Sweden over the last couple of months.

One of the main findings of the report highlights that the key reason for these Afghan children to travel was the deteriorating security situation, including violence, discrimination and tensions between ethnic groups in the country where they lived - they were not safe.

Karolina Lindholm Billing, deputy regional representative at the UNHCR Northern Europe office, reflected about the added value of the report, entitled "This is who we are"

"The fact that children are undertaking these long and dangerous journeys is extremely worrisome and presents a huge risk to their safety and well-being. This profiling survey of Afghan unaccompanied and separated children gives UNHCR a deeper understanding of why they leave their homes, and evidence to base our advocacy and interventions on, so that the protection needs of these children can be better met, both in their countries of origin or first asylum, and in countries of final destination." she said.

(...)

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Dagens Nyheter 16-11- 20: UNHCR: Börja med att spåra ensamkommandes familjer (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 160930:

UNHCR 16-09-14:

Accenture study finds internet, mobile connectivity a lifeline for refugees till sidans topp

Refugees view access to a mobile phone and internet as being critical to their safety and security and essential for keeping in touch with loved ones. Many refugees regard a connected device as being as vital to them as food, water or shelter, according to a new report from UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and Accenture (NYSE: ACN).

The report, "Connecting Refugees: How Internet and Mobile Connectivity Can Improve Refugee Well-being and Transform Humanitarian Action," is based on research undertaken in 44 countries on four continents. It shows that for many refugees a connected device is a lifeline and a critical tool for self-empowerment.

Unsurprisingly, affordability is often a barrier to connectivity. Refugees living in urban areas tend to have similar access to mobile networks as other urban populations, but for refugees in rural locations the picture is very different, with only one in six refugees located in areas with 3G access, and one in five rural refugees having no mobile coverage at all - significantly lower than for the population at large. This effectively prevents many refugees from participating in the cultural, educational, and economic activity that connectivity affords.

"In the world we live in today, internet connectivity and smart phones can become a lifeline for refugees, providing an essential means for them to give and receive vital information, communicate with separated family members, gain access to essential services, and reconnect to the local, national and global communities around them," said Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Most importantly, connectivity can help broaden the opportunities for refugees to improve their own lives and pursue a vision of a future that would otherwise be denied to them."

Key Findings

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Arkiveringsdatum 160914:

Unicef September 2016:

Uprooted: The growing crisis for refugee and migrant children till sidans topp

Around the world, nearly 50 million children have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced. This report presents - for the first time - comprehensive, global data about these children - where they are born, where they move and some of the dangers they face along the way. The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region.

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Overseas Development Institute September 2016:

Europe's refugees and migrants: hidden flows, tightened borders and spiralling costs till sidans topp

John Cosgrave, Karen Hargrave, Marta Foresti and Isabella Massa, with Justin Beresford, Helen Dempster and Joanna Rea

The European response to the current migration 'crisis' has been swift. Since 2014, at least €17 billion has been spent on deterring refugees and migrants through tighter border controls and bilateral agreements, such as the EU-Turkey deal. These measures have been effective in reducing flows - as few as 330,000 refugees and migrants are likely to arrive in Europe this year via the Mediterranean through 'overt' routes.

However, Europe will still see 890,000 asylum applications in 2016. This discrepancy between overt arrivals and asylum applications shows that there are many people whose journeys to Europe we know little about. Border controls have, in many cases, simply rerouted refugees and migrants towards alternative, 'covert' routes.

As a result of the analysis in this report, we conclude that Europe needs a new approach. It needs to shift from an emphasis on controlling and deterring migration, towards a pragmatic and effective approach to manage it better. This report makes four key policy recommendations:

1. European governments should facilitate and increase legal pathways so that they can monitor and more effectively manage flows of refugees and migrants.

2. A new global alliance of migration and displacement data is needed.

3. Governments should commit to more transparency on deterrence costs, as well as the significant reception and procedural costs in both national and EU budgets.

4. Forge new international and regional coalitions built around common interests and objectives that aim to ensure safe, controlled and well-managed migration.

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Arkiveringsdatum 160831:

IOM 16-08-16:

Iraqi Migration to Europe: IOM Report till sidans topp

IOM Iraq today released a report: "Migration Flows from Iraq to Europe: Reasons Behind Migration". The report explores the reasons why Iraqi migrants choose Europe, their hopes and expectations, and motives for returning to their home country.

The qualitative study is based on 14 focus group discussions with 86 Iraqis who migrated to Europe in 2015 and subsequently returned to Iraq. The focus group discussions were held in Baghdad and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) between March and April 2016. All participants returned to Iraq through IOM's Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programme.

The findings reveal that the main reasons cited for emigration from Iraq were lack of security (general and personal), perceived lack of equality and social justice, and political instability. Economic instability was mentioned across all locations, but was considered secondary to security concerns in Baghdad.

Reasons behind choosing Europe as a destination included perceived security, equality and social justice. The way to Europe was seen as open, which for migrants implied lower risks and costs, and European countries were thought to have favourable immigration policies.

Many participants selected a country of destination based on the presence of friends or relatives and on information, most often obtained by word of mouth, about the ease of obtaining residency permits and the possibility of family reunification.

However, most migrants reported that life in Europe had been idealized and that the reality was more difficult than expected. The main reasons for their disappointment and frustration were the length and unpredictability of the asylum application process, followed by living conditions, which were dependent on the reception system in the country of destination.

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Rapporten: Migration Flows from Iraq to Europe: Reasons Behind Migration (Extern länk)

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, Sveriges Radio, SvT, andra svenska media via Nyhetsfilter och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media till exempel via Are You Syrious och Rights in Exile, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, Statewatch och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Asylrättscentrum, Svenska Amnesty, FARR, #vistårinteut och InfoTorg Juridik (betaltjänst) samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

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