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Arkivet har startat om och saknar material från perioden 180119 - 180513

Arkiveringsdatum 190801:

Comparative Migration Studies 19-07-23:

The relational dimension of externalizing border control: selective visa policies till sidans topp

Lena Laube

The paper traces the crucial role of visa policies in externalizing border control. Since the European Union has agreed upon a highly selective visa policy in 2001, most neighbouring countries are (newly) confronted with visa requirements for short-term travel. Because of this standardization of travel opportunities, visa-free travel to the European Union has become a rare and valuable political asset both for third country nationals and their governments. Consequently, visa liberalization became a major issue in bilateral negotiations with the EU over cooperation in migration management and is frequently used as an incentive by the EU institutions. However, the EU is not the only cooperating partner that strategically engages in border and migration diplomacy. As the case studies of Moldova, Morocco and Turkey show, all governments involved use issues of mobility regulation as a foreign policy tool, though with varying success in regard to visa liberalization.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190721:

Mixed Migration Centre / ReliefWeb 19-07-05:

Everyone's prey: Kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration till sidans topp

The Mixed Migration Centre's 4Mi project gathers hundreds of interviews with refugees and migrants on the move every month and has developed extensive data sets across several migratory routes. This data indicates that kidnapping and extortionate detention have become a normalised part of the criminal exploitation of refugees and migrants on the move.

This Briefing Paper draws on published research and 4Mi primary data to deliver, in the first section, some general and global observations and case studies. The second part of the paper offers a deeper exploration of experiences from the Horn of Africa, using interviews with and surveys of refugees and migrants from Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia to illustrate the role of kidnapping and extortionate detention in mixed migration flows along three routes out of the region.

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Wiley Online Library 19-07-07:

Back in Time - A temporal autobiographical approach to Afghan return migration till sidans topp

Marieke van Houte


Repatriation programmes for refugees and asylum seekers are based on the assumption that going 'home' is the most desirable thing to do to restore the social order that was disrupted by conflict. Yet the often?limited success of these programmes as migration management solutions, shown in poor reintegration results and re?emigration, shows that there is a need for a better understanding of the lived experiences of (return) migrants. This article studies Afghan managed and "spontaneous" return migrants from Europe through an innovative temporal autobiographical approach, using both verbal and creative participatory narrative methods. I find that some migration movements were experienced as disruptive, while others were not, and that return sometimes meant a return to a previous life, sometimes a continuation, and sometimes the start of something new. I conclude that migration management programmes aimed towards "durable solutions" and the wellbeing of returnees should enable rather than constrain post?return mobility.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190703:

FRA 19-06-25:

FRA report calls for 'zero tolerance' of severe labour exploitation till sidans topp

FRA research published today highlights the urgent need for European governments to do more to tackle severe labour exploitation in firms, factories and farms across the EU. First-hand interviews with hundreds of exploited workers reveal the illegal practices in sectors including agriculture, construction, domestic work, hospitality, manufacturing and transport.

Many exploited workers are often invisible. But the workers' perspectives in FRA's report 'Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU' show how their exploitation contributes to the supply chains of the everyday goods and services we take for granted - from the food on our plates, to the shirts on our backs.

The report reveals that over half of the workers found their jobs by word of mouth but ended up in 'concentration camp conditions' where 'they keep us like dogs, like slaves'.

FRA researchers found that some of the EU's exploited migrant workers are:

+ paid as little as €5-a-day;

+ forced to pay debts to traffickers before earning a cent;

+ working 92-hour, seven-day weeks, with no holiday or time off;

+ sleeping in shipping containers, with no water or electricity;

+ monitored on CCTV 24/7 by bosses;

+ subjected to beatings, verbal abuse and threats of further violence;

+ given no protective clothing to work with hazardous chemicals;

+ face sexual and gender-based violence or forced into moving drugs;

+ threatened of dismissal and deportation when they ask for their wages.

The report outlines 13 actions for EU institutions and Member States to end exploitation:

End fraudulent or deceptive recruitment practices.


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Comparative Migration Studies 19-06-27:

Lost in limbo? Navigating practices of appropriation of non-deportable refugees till sidans topp

Sarah Nimführ Buba Sesay

Malta, an island-state, limits the mobility of non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers who want to leave due to the lived consequences of disintegration. Stripped of any legal entitlements non-deportable refugees only have restricted access to the job market, basic services, and health care. They have no formal legal status whilst their presence and stay are known by the immigration authorities. However, although non-deportability restricts refugees' mobility, they find ways to navigate the system governing their physical and social immobilities.

Based on (auto-)ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Malta and Italy, non-deportable, rejected asylum seekers' lived experiences of first reception in Malta and migrating to Italy are illuminated. While enacting their denied right of mobility, new challenges reveal themselves, resulting in a life in limbo that continues even after they leave Malta. Through the conceptual lens of the 'perspective of migration' we consider the making and unmaking of refugees' (im)mobilities. In doing so, we pursue a three-stage approach. First, we shed light on produced immobilities while in Malta. Second, we explore refugees' practices of appropriation of mobility and third, we turn to new possibilities and challenges they face after a secondary movement to Italy. From a micro-analytical perspective, we examine how non-deportable refugees navigate the system governing their social and physical (im)mobilities. Practices of resistance and conciliation are illustrated.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190610:

Springer Link 19-05-03:

Exploring the link between irregular migration and asylum: the case of Italy till sidans topp

Daniela Ghio, Gian Carlo Blangiardo

Many asylum seekers crossed European borders in an irregular manner during the last 2 years and completed their asylum procedure with a negative decision. Based on the limited number of effective orders to leave, it may be argued that a majority of rejected asylum seekers are de-facto staying in the European Union.

This paper aims to investigate the nexus between irregular migration and asylum. The analysis focuses on the case of Italy adopting a residual method. The amount of asylum seekers, who have the right of residence in Italy, is subtracted from the number of immigrants who entered Italian borders in an irregular manner from 2015 to 2017: the remainder amount provides an estimation of irregular immigrants generated by the failure of asylum procedure. A short-term migration scenario is settled for 2018 giving empirical-based insights to quantify irregular migrants who are likely to stay in Italy at the beginning of 2019.

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European Migration Network May 2019:

Annual Report on Migration and Asylum 2018 till sidans topp

Ur innehållsförteckningen:

+ Legal migration and mobility

+ International protection including asylum

+ Unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable groups

+ Integration

+ Citizenship and statelessness

+ Borders, visa and Schengen

+ Irregular migration including migrant smuggling

+ Trafficking in human beings

+ Return and readmission

EMN årsrapporter (Extern länk)

Läs eller hämta årsrapporten 2018 (Extern länk till pdf-fil)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190517:

UNHCR 19-05-08:

Confronting the barriers to IDP women and girls' participation in humanitarian settings till sidans topp

By the end of 2017, there were an estimated 40 million people internally displaced by conflict and violence, while during the same year over 19 million people were estimated to have been displaced by disasters. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 2017 dramatically demonstrated an increase in internal displacement across the globe with an estimated 30.6 million displacements. Although the numbers are high, internal displacement has not received sufficient attention from the international community and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable, struggling to access protection and their rights.

IDP women and girls are disproportionally affected by internal displacement both in terms of numbers and impacts. In most instances, gender- specific outcomes of internal displacement are ignored, despite the significant impact that gender has at different phases of internal displacement. Gender experiences influence the way women and men live which affects pre-displacement, the experience and the process of displacement and their choice of return, local integration and settlement elsewhere in the country, and achievement of durable solutions. In many armed conflicts, gender is an important factor that determines the cause of displacement as women and girls are systematically targeted as a tool of war.

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Arkiveringsdatum 190415:

Women's Refugee Commission 19-03-21:

Sexual violence against men and boys on the Central Mediterranean route to Italy till sidans topp

"More Than One Million Pains":

The Women's Refugee Commission is undertaking a three-country exploratory study on sexual violence against refugee men and boys, including those with diverse sexual orientation and gender identity and expression.

Every year since 2014, tens of thousands of refugees and migrants have traveled the central Mediterranean route to Italy, one of the most active and dangerous migration passageways in the world. Along the way, many experience kidnapping, exploitation, extortion, and enslavement. Large numbers die in the desert, are confined to hellish detention centers in Libya, or drown at sea. Sexual violence against refugee and migrant women and girls is rampant throughout the route. Women and girls also face sexual violence, including sexual exploitation and trafficking, in Italy. Less is known about the men and boys who undertake this journey. These knowledge gaps are of concern, given that an estimated 87.5 percent of refugees and migrants who have entered Italy via the central Mediterranean route since 2016 are men and boys, the latter of whom are largely unaccompanied.

The Women's Refugee Commission (WRC) conducted a qualitative exploratory study to examine the nature and characteristics of sexual violence perpetrated against refugee and migrant men and boys traveling the central Mediterranean route to Italy. We also looked at intersections with violence against women and girls. In October 2018, WRC undertook fieldwork in Rome and Sicily.

The findings and recommendations in this report aim to help international and national humanitarian agencies improve protection mechanisms and strengthen services for at-risk men and boys and male sexual violence survivors in Italy.

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ECRE 19-03-29: Study seeks to fill knowledge gap on sexual abuse of male migrants (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 190111:

IOM 18-12- 21:

Better evidence needed to inform design and implementation of information campaigns till sidans topp

A new report by IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) reveals the limited evidence base for information campaigns related to migration.

The report Evaluating the Impact of Information Campaigns in the Field of Migration reveals rigorous assessments of the effects different types of information campaigns may have on distinct target groups are rare - despite the widespread use of such campaigns targeted at potential migrants.

A 2017 IOM study revealed that over half of the migrants interviewed in IOM Niger transit centres in 2016 declared they did not collect information about migration before they left. Of those who did, 74 per cent reported that they were ill informed about the risks and, more generally, the conditions of the journey, and that they mostly relied on information from family and friends.

Migrants often start their journeys with little or biased information. They often end in vulnerable situations by becoming victims of smuggling or trafficking.

This new GMDAC report is based on a systematic literature review of 60 studies from four continents (Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe), targeted at potential migrants and traffickers, as well as communities at large. GMDAC reviewed 60 evaluation reports of which approximately half were published.

Workshop-type activities and cable TV programmes or advertisements were the most popular communication tools for the campaigns featured in the 60 studies, GMDAC learned. Many of these evaluations reported the number and profiles of campaign recipients or beneficiaries; in most cases, however, impact was not directly measured. Much of available evaluations were based on anecdotal evidence or cross-sectional surveys of a small number of participants, sampled at convenience, meaning the results cannot be generalized.


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Arkiveringsdatum 181231:

UNHCR 18-12-19:

More refugees being helped by family, work and study, finds UNHCR and OECD study till sidans topp

Data released today shows that OECD countries have admitted more people from major refugee source countries on non-humanitarian permits than through resettlement schemes in the last eight years.

A study by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the OECD, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development titled "Safe Pathways for Refugees" shows that more than 560,000 people from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia and Eritrea entered OECD countries through family, work and study permits in an eight year period.

This compares to 350,400 from the five countries who arrived within the same period through resettlement schemes.

These figures do not include people from those five refugee populations who have been granted refugee status or humanitarian permits through national asylum systems and procedures. These amount to 1.5 million in the same period, highlighting the critical importance of fair and efficient national asylum systems.

Of all the non-humanitarian entry permits issued by OECD nations to people from the five refugee source countries, family permits account for 86 per cent, followed by student permits (10 per cent) and work permits (four per cent).

"While these pathways are not a substitute for resettlement, they can complement humanitarian programmes by facilitating safe and legal entry for refugees to other countries. Not only can this help mitigate refugees having to resort to dangerous journeys, it will also go some way towards alleviating the strains on major refugee hosting nations," said UNHCR's Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Volker Türk.

This study is the first, comprehensive mapping exercise of its kind, building on the commitments made by the international community in the 2016 New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants to improve data collection on resettlement and other pathways for admission of refugees.


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Arkiveringsdatum 181204:

Amnesty International 18-11-23:

A cold welcome: Human rights of Roma and other 'vulnerable EU citizens' at risk till sidans topp

Eastern Europeans, most of whom identify as Roma, are currently living in desperate and dangerous situations in Swedish cities and towns. In this report, Amnesty International explores barriers - structural, legal, and social - faced by EU citizens living in marginalization in Sweden. The report finds that the Swedish state fails to recognize the rights of this group. As a result, destitute EU migrants live in a social and legal limbo for years, without even a minimum of protection or support, while anti-Roma sentiments and anti-begging rhetoric permeate the public debate. Sweden has human rights obligations toward all people in the country, including non-citizens.

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Arkiveringsdatum 181125:

Global Detention Project 18-10-19:

Global Detention: Investigation into social media in the context of migration control till sidans topp

Physical Fences and Digital Divides. A Global Detention project investigation into the role of social media in the context of migration control. Part II: "Why Would You Go?"

"Social media at times will convince people to come to Europe, because of the things people put on Facebook-the lifestyle and so on. Maybe it does that. But I would never tell people to come through Libya, to make this journey."

Part II of the GDP's Special Series investigates how new information and communications technologies are used during irregular migration. Featuring on-the-ground reports, the paper examines the diverse ways migrants and refugees put social media to use during their journeys and helps address gaps in current literature regarding the role of digital platforms in contemporary migration contexts.

A key finding is that usage of digital tools is far more varied than the extant literature generally reports. Indeed, varying factors including socio-economics, nationality, and smuggling modus operandi considerably affect the use of such resources. Many sources, for example, emphasised the importance of community and diaspora networks during the various stages of their journeys and downplayed the role of social media and smartphones, which were often barely used-and sometimes not at all.

"Telephones were forbidden. We weren't even allowed to take telephones with us because the smugglers control you. Phone calls weren't allowed, even. We had to hide our phones somewhere because if they saw you had one, they'd take it from you."

(Part I of this Special Series is available to read online here. The final instalment, which will reflect on the lessons learned from this research to provide suggestions and recommendations for human rights practitioners who seek to harness social media in ways that emphasise harm reduction, will be released later this year.)

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Arkiveringsdatum 181018:

Amnesty International 18-10-05:

Refugee women speak out against violence, dangerous conditions and official neglect till sidans topp

Women fleeing war and conflict are coming together to fight against horrific abuses, including sexual violence, and to demand a better life in Europe, Amnesty International reveals in a new report published today.

I want to decide my future: Uprooted women in Greece speak out, reveals the perilous journeys made by women and girls and the terrible conditions and dangers they face when they finally arrive on the Greek islands or mainland. It also highlights the tremendous resilience and strength these women have shown in overcoming adversity.

"The abject failure of European governments to open safe and legal routes to refugees fleeing war is putting women and girls at increased risk of harrowing abuses," said Kumi Naidoo, Secretary General of Amnesty International.

"And yet despite the challenges and against all odds, these women are finding the strength to speak out. Those in power must listen to their voices and act on their words. In these times of #MeToo and #TimesUp, we are proud to stand with our uprooted sisters in Greece to say, 'We see you, we hear you, we believe you, and we will fight with you'."

Amnesty has spoken to more than 100 women and girls living in camps and other accommodation in and around Athens and on the Greek islands since March 2017. Based on their insights, today's report presents ten clear demands to tackle violations of human rights experienced by women refugees.

Women travelling to Europe are at particular risk of physical, verbal and sexual harassment by smugglers.

"When the European governments closed the doors to refugees, we women were more exposed to the abuses of the smugglers," one Afghan refugee told Amnesty International. "You cannot ask the police or anyone else for help because you are 'illegal'. Smugglers take advantage of that."


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Arkiveringsdatum 180804:

UNHCR 18-07-20:

UNHCR reports progress on health efforts for refugees despite record displacement till sidans topp

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has this week released its Annual Public Health Overview of new refugee emergencies and ongoing operations. Despite record forced displacement globally, the report finds that health services to refugees and other displaced populations are in most cases on track. However, communicable diseases, anaemia and stunting remain areas of concern.

The report notes that strengthened weekly surveillance of key health indicators among refugee populations during emergencies and systematic monitoring are contributing to prompt, effective interventions. The report is a snapshot of what has been achieved and highlights the trends based on key indicators in UNHCR's public health, reproductive health and HIV, nutrition, food security, and water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in 37 key operations. In 21 of these operations, UNHCR and its partners collect and analyse public health data using a standardized health information system to better protect and serve refugees.

The report includes, for example, the findings on the mortality rates among refugee children under the age of five - which is always an important health impact indicator in emergencies. Despite major refugee emergencies and disease outbreaks in 2017 - a year in which wars and persecution drove global forced displacement to a new high - this rate remained globally stable in post-emergency situations at an average of 0.4 deaths per 1,000 refugee children every month, sustaining the declining trend we've observed since 2011. The indicator is within the range reported in developing and middle income countries, according to the UN 2017 World Mortality report.


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Arkiveringsdatum 180718:

Science Advances 18-06-20:

Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seekers are not a "burden" till sidans topp

This paper aims to evaluate the economic and fiscal effects of inflows of asylum seekers into Western Europe from 1985 to 2015. It relies on an empirical methodology that is widely used to estimate the macroeconomic effects of structural shocks and policies. It shows that inflows of asylum seekers do not deteriorate host countries' economic performance or fiscal balance because the increase in public spending induced by asylum seekers is more than compensated for by an increase in tax revenues net of transfers. As asylum seekers become permanent residents, their macroeconomic impacts become positive.


Wars in Syria and in the Middle East in general have caused a major humanitarian crisis. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported that there were more displaced persons in 2015 than in any year since the Second World War. Europe alone received more than 1 million asylum applications, a situation widely described as a "migrant crisis." This article attempts to quantify the effects of inflows of asylum seekers on the economies of Western Europe. We examine effects on host countries' economic performance, as measured using gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, unemployment rate, and public finances. Relevant economic studies have mainly focused on the effects of permanent immigration and have reported divergent findings; in particular, certain studies have stressed the fiscal costs of particular categories of immigrants and the adverse effects of immigrants on natives' employment prospects, whereas others studies have highlighted the beneficial impacts of immigrants on host countries' economic performance.


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Arkiveringsdatum 171229:

Institute for Security Studies 17-12-13:

Nobody move! Myths of the EU migration crisis till sidans topp

This Chaillot Paper contextualises the dilemmas facing EU policymakers as Europe experienced an unprecedented influx of migrants and refugees in 2015-2016. Analysing and comparing the differing perspectives of external experts and internal practitioners, it examines how the EU's enlargement, neighbourhood and development policies evolved in response to the migration crisis.

The paper identifies nine important shifts in European foreign policy that took place during the crisis, offering an explanation of why each occurred.

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Arkiveringsdatum 171013:

Destination Unknown 17-10-02:

Youth on the move: Investigating decision-making, trajectories and expectations till sidans topp

A new study, Youth on the move: Investigating decision-making, migration trajectories and expectations of young people on the way to Italy, has been released - shedding light on what motivates young people to move from Africa to Italy.

The study was carried out by the Mixed Migration Hub and investigated why young people decided to travel and how prepared they were to do so, what influenced the routes and destinations they chose, and how they expected their journey and arrival in Europe to be. The assessment interviewed 81 respondents originally from West Africa, East Africa and the Middle East between the ages of 15 and 24, who arrived in Italy after March 2016.

The report found that political and security issues, often linked with economic worries, were the most common reasons which convinced young people to migrate. Unless this choice was triggered by fast-moving events, young people tended to leave before turning 18 to pursue their aspirations as part of a transition to adulthood.

The study's findings show that how prepared young people are for the journey varies. Most young people who decided to move chose their destinations after gathering information about the country and how to reach it. However, the information they gathered was not detailed or fully representative of the difficulties they could meet along the way.

The migration 'industry' differs greatly across the various regions of origin, according to the report. In West Africa, a greater number of stakeholders play roles in the migration process. Drivers, labour recruiters, housing providers, smugglers and other people offer a variety of services within specific locations.

Young people's journey from East Africa seems to be more organised, with smugglers taking care of transportation, accommodation (usually in warehouses) and providing food to their clients.


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Arkiveringsdatum 170901:

Refuge - Canada's Journal on Refugees August 2017:

Ethical Considerations: Research with People in Situations of Forced Migration till sidans topp

Christina Clark-Kazak

Research involving people in situations of forced migration deepens our understanding of their experiences and has the potential to inform evidence-based decision-making, but also poses particular ethical challenges and opportunities. This document is intended to provide researchers, community organizations, and people in situations of forced migration with information on the particularities of forced migration contexts to complement established ethical principles and frameworks on research with human subjects more generally. They draw on good practices identified in a scan of civil society and government documents and academic literature

Forced migration research contexts are particular several ways:

1. People who ee across borders are subject to legal rights and opportunities that are di erent from those for citizens born in the host country. The right to remain in the host country can be revoked or jeopardized on the basis of data collected during research. Given this precarious legal status, researchers working with people in situations of forced migration need to carefully consider ethical obligations to minimize risks.

2. Displaced people are often in situations of unequal power relations where they depend on sponsors, service providers, and/or the government for survival and/or legal status. This extreme dependence may call into question the voluntary nature of consent to participate in research conducted by, or in partnership with, such organizations.

3. Given the operation of groups deemed to be engaged in terrorism in countries of origin and asylum, research may run into conflict with anti-terrorist legislation. For example, research respondents may disclose links to, or express sympathy with the objectives of, groups deemed to have terrorist aims. Because researchers are not protected by similar legal privileges for doctors and lawyers, there may be limits to confidentiality of information, posing ethical challenges.


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Arkiveringsdatum 170712:

UNHCR 17-07-03:

Insecurity, economic crisis, abuse and exploitation push migrants to Europe till sidans topp

A study of mixed refugee and migrant flows by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has found that around half of those travelling to Libya do so believing they can find jobs there, but end up fleeing onwards to Europe to escape life-threatening insecurity, instability, difficult economic conditions plus widespread exploitation and abuse.

Foreign nationals going to Libya are part of mixed migration flows, meaning that people with different backgrounds and motivations travel together along the same routes, often with the help of ruthless people smugglers and criminal gangs. They include refugees, asylum seekers, economic migrants, unaccompanied minors, environmental migrants, victims of trafficking and stranded migrants, among others.

In recent years, the number of people crossing by sea from North Africa to southern Europe has increased. The indications are that this trend is likely to continue. Of the three main routes used by refugees and migrants to reach Europe - the Western Mediterranean route, the Central Mediterranean route and the Eastern Mediterranean route- Libya has become the most commonly used one, and also the deadliest.

The study commissioned by UNHCR found that the profiles and nationalities of people arriving in Libya have been evolving over the past few years, with a marked decrease in those originating in East Africa and an increase in those from West Africa, who now represent well over half of all arrivals to Europe through the Central Mediterranean route from Libya to Italy (over 100,000 arrivals in 2016).


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EASO 17-07-07:

Easos årsrapport om asylsituationen i EU och de senaste asylsiffrorna till sidans topp

I dag offentliggjorde Europeiska stödkontoret för asylfrågor (Easo) sin årliga referensrapport: årsrapporten om asylsituationen i Europeiska unionen 2016.

Under 2016 kom det in närmare 1,3 miljoner ansökningar om internationellt skydd i EU+. Detta var en minskning med 7 procent jämfört med 2015, då närmare 1,4 miljoner ansökningar kom in. Den stora ökningen av asylansökningar under de senaste två åren har emellertid lett till att besluten som fattas i första instans har ökat: under 2016 fattades närmare 1,15 miljoner beslut i första instans i länderna i EU+, en ökning med 84 procent jämfört med 2015. Besluten som fattades i andra instans ökade också under 2016; ökningen var 21 procent jämfört med 2015. Den totala andelen bifall i första instans var 61 procent och det var en ökning jämfört med föregående år.

Det största antalet registrerade asylsökande var medborgare i Syrien, Afghanistan, Irak, Pakistan och Nigeria. De främsta mottagarländerna var Tyskland, Italien, Frankrike, Grekland och Österrike. Jämfört med 2015 väntade 7 procent fler asylsökande på ett slutgiltigt beslut, vilket fortsatte att sätta press på asyl- och mottagningssystemen i länderna i EU+.

Krisen i Syrien fortsatte att vara en central faktor för antalet ansökningar om internationellt skydd i EU+. De allra flesta asylsökande var syriska medborgare och de stod för 26 procent av alla asylansökningar i EU+.

Över 65 000 ensamkommande barn sökte internationellt skydd i EU+ under 2016, en minskning med 37 procent från föregående år. Av alla ansökningar för ensamkommande barn som mottogs var 37 procent från afghanska medborgare.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170628:

Plan International 17-06-12:

Barnarbete vanligt bland barn på flykt till sidans topp

168 miljoner barn tvingas arbeta varje dag. I Jordanien har antalet fördubblats på mindre än tio år, och över hälften måste utföra farliga arbetsuppgifter. I dag på Internationella dagen mot barnarbete uppmärksammas kampen för att alla barn ska ha rätt till sin barndom.

- Vi hade inte mycket innan kriget bröt ut, men nu har vi ännu mindre när vi bor i ett flyktingläger. Så jag arbetar för att hjälpa min familj att överleva.

Ismail är 15 år och bor i ett flyktingläger på gränsen mellan Syrien och Jordanien. Hans bror är traumatiserad efter upplevelserna av kriget i Syrien och pratar inte längre. För att familjen ska kunna äta arbetar Ismail från fem på morgonen till fem på eftermiddagen med att leverera matvaror.

- När jag gick i skolan mådde jag väldigt bra, jag ville bli polis när jag växte upp men så blir det nog inte nu, antar jag, säger han.

Uppskattningsvis finns det 168 miljoner barn i världen som tvingas arbeta. Det är oklart hur många som lever med den värsta formen av barnarbete: trafficking, sexuellt utnyttjande, slaveri och rekrytering till väpnade grupper, men hälften av alla barn som jobbar utför farliga arbetsuppgifter.

De flesta barn som tvingas arbeta bor i länder som drabbats av konflikter och katastrofer. Problemen förvärras när de normala skyddsmekanismerna sätts ur spel och barn på flykt är särskilt utsatta. Barnarbete är en av de vanligaste anledningarna till att barn inte går i skolan, vilket gör det ännu svårare för dem att ta sig ur fattigdomen.

- I katastrofer och konflikter är det viktigt att utsatta familjer får stöd så att barn inte tvingas in i barnarbete, säger Lotte Claessens, specialist på barnskyddsfrågor på Plan International Sverige.


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Arkiveringsdatum 170613:

Europarådet 17-06- 02:

Immigration is instrumental for modernisation of societies and for Europe's survival till sidans topp

European states should acknowledge that immigration into Europe is both instrumental for "renewed dynamic and modernisation of societies" and for Europe's survival of the 'demographic winter' which the continent is entering, PACE Committee on migration declared.

According to the committee, the migrant and refugee crisis remains one of the main challenges facing European countries, which have so far failed to cooperate effectively in addressing its root causes. The crisis is in this sense more a political issue of migration management policy than of lack of resources or capacity.

In view of the "ever more urgent" need to find comprehensive humanitarian and political responses to the crisis, the parliamentarians adopted a draft resolution, based on the report prepared by Duarte Marques (Portugal, PPE/DC), which notably calls on European Union member states to implement rapidly the new Regulation on a common asylum procedure and to cooperate in maintaining and developing transnational information systems and databases on asylum applications and their results.

Council of Europe member states should respect the rights and dignity of all refugees and asylum-seekers ensure refugees and asylum seekers' access to legal protection and assistance and their right to appeal and align as far as possible levels of protection and social and financial assistance having regard to the cost of living.

The Assembly will discuss the text at its next plenary session (Strasbourg, 26-30 June 2017).

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Justitiedepartementet 17-06-08:

Regeringens skrivelse: Riksrevisionens rapport om lärdomar av flyktingsituationen till sidans topp

I denna skrivelse redovisar regeringen sin bedömning av de iakttagelser och slutsatser som framgår av Riksrevisionens rapport Lärdomar av flyktingsituationen hösten 2015 - beredskap och planering (RiR 2017:4).

Riksrevisionen har granskat om Migrationsverket, övriga ansvariga myndigheter och regeringen hade beredskap för en situation med många asylsökande och hur situationen hanterades. Riksrevisionen anser sammantaget att Migrationsverket och övriga samhällsaktörer i stort sett lyckades klara att ta emot och ordna tak över huvudet för det stora antalet asylsökande. Samtidigt uppstod fall där grundläggande mål för samhällets beredskap som liv, hälsa och rättssäkerhet utmanades. Det gäller särskilt ensamkommande barn. Riksrevisionen anser också att samverkan mellan ansvariga myndigheter brast, bland annat på grund av bristande kunskap eller oklarheter kring regelverk hos de inblandade aktörerna. Vidare anser Riksrevisionen att beredskapen var begränsad för en så komplex och utdragen situation som flyktingsituationen hösten 2015. Migrationsverket och andra myndigheter hade inte övat för ett så stort antal flyktingar och ett sådant scenario hade heller inte tagits upp i myndigheternas risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser.

Riksrevisionen lämnar fem rekommendationer till regeringen. Regeringen instämmer i flera av iakttagelserna.

I granskningsrapporten avrapporterar Riksrevisionen även en separat granskning av lärdomar från flyktingsituationen under 90-talet.

I och med denna skrivelse anser regeringen att Riksrevisionens rapport är slutbehandlad.

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Stockholms Universitet 17-06-08:

Så hittar flyktingar den farliga vägen mot Europa till sidans topp

Varför beslutar sig människor för att resa genom Sahara och över Medelhavet mot en osäker framtid i Europa? Och hur vet de hur de ska ta sig fram? Att samla information och kunskap om smugglare, rutter och tillfälliga jobb är det viktigaste för dem som vågar allt för hoppet om ett liv i säkerhet och trygghet.

Under två år har socialantropologen Tekalign Ayalew Mengiste gjort fältstudier i Addis Abeba i Etiopien, i Sudans huvudstad Khartoum, i Rom, London och i Sverige för att undersöka flyktingströmmarna från Etiopien och Eritrea till Europa.

- Det jag frågade, både mig själv och de jag intervjuade, var varför man gör ett så riskfyllt val. Och det finns många och komplexa orsaker. Trycket är stort på unga människor att börja tjäna pengar och försörja en familj, men de ser inga möjligheter att göra det hemma. Och när man väl gett sig av kan man inte vända hemåt igen. Alla vet hur riskabelt det är, men det finns berättelser om de som lyckas och därför fortsätter man framåt, säger Tekalign.

Eftersom det inte finns några formella sätt vare sig för asylsökande eller för arbetssökande att ta sig från till exempel Eritrea till Europa hänvisas man till att ta hjälp av smugglare och ta sig först genom Sahara och sedan över Medelhavet. Längs hela vägen spelar nätverk med andra eritreaner och etiopier som rest mot Europa tidigare eller bosatt sig längs migrant-rutten en nyckelroll. De som migrerar sparar telefonnummer och Facebook-kontakter och samlar så mycket kunskap som möjligt.

- Det byggs kunskap längs rutterna om var man kan hitta tillfälliga jobb för att betala smugglarna och skaffa sig mat och sovplats, och det finns kunskap om vilka smugglare som går att lita på. Det är just nätverken av migranter och smugglare som bistår med kunskapen. I öknen och i havet är smugglarna de enda som kan hjälpa dig. Tips och råd från de som redan gjort resan blir ovärderliga, säger Tekalign.


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Arkiveringsdatum 170530:

Tent 17-05-23:

Tent tracker: Public perceptions of the refugee crisis till sidans topp

A report from the Tent Foundation and Audience net

In december 2016, tent commissioned its second public opinion survey on the perceptions of refugees amongst the population of 12 countries.

Audience net conducted a comprehensive survey of 12,500 individuals from Australia, Canada, france, Germany, Greece Hungary, Italy, Serbia, Sweden, Turkey, THE United Kingdom, and the United States. The findings of this survey show that while the public has many conflicting views about welcoming refugees into their communities, there is plenty of opportunity to positively shift the narrative.

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UNICEF 17-05-18:

UNICEF kräver lagliga vägar för barn på flykt till sidans topp

Antalet barn i världen som flyr ensamma har femfaldigats sedan 2010. Det visar en ny rapport från UNICEF som släpps idag. Majoriteten av dem söker sig till Europa. Barnen tvingas använda livsfarliga rutter och utsätts för våld, övergrepp och utnyttjande. Nu kräver UNICEF fler lagliga vägar för barn på flykt.

Rapporten A child is a child visar de risker som barn utsätts för när de är på flykt. Situationen är särskilt allvarlig i Italien där 92 procent av barnen som anländer till landet är ensamkommande. Den centraleuropeiska rutten anses som en av världens farligaste. Under 2016 omkom 4 579 personer när de försökte korsa Medelhavet till Italien. 700 var barn. Majoriteten av barnens berättelser pekar på att de varit utsatta för människohandel eller utnyttjande på annat sätt. Det kan vara så många som 91 procent.

Orsakerna till att barn flyr ensamma är olika. Många flyr från våld, konflikter, förföljelse, fattigdom eller klimatförändringar. Andra har mer specifika anledningar som att förenas med sina familjer. Oavsett anledning finns det få lagliga vägar för barn att förflytta sig. Familjeåterföreningsregler är mycket restriktiva, humanitära visum existerar inte praktiken och andelen avtalade kvotflyktingar täcker endast 14 procent av behovet enligt FN:s flyktingorgan UNHCR.

I brist på lagliga vägar tvingas barnen att använda livsfarliga rutter och hamnar ofta i händer på smugglare och människohandlare. Våld, övergrepp och utnyttjande är vardag för många barn.

Alla barn har rätt att vara med sin familj


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Dagens Nyheter 17-05-18: Antalet ensamma barn på flykt ökar kraftigt (Extern länk)

ECRE 17-05-26: UNICEF and Hungarian Helsinki Committee release reports on children in migration (Extern länk)

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Europarådet 16-05-28:

Migration as an opportunity for European development till sidans topp

During its plenary session in Strasbourg, on 28 June, PACE will dedicate a full day of debates to "Migration and Refugees". The report on "migration as an opportunity for European development" by Andrea Rigoni (Italy, ALDE) will allow members to discuss a series of concrete measures aimed at facilitating mutually beneficial migration to Europe.

"The first thing to be done is to counter the negative rhetoric against migration and demonstrate to the public the economic evidences of its potential benefit to our societies. All public and private actors should be involved in the process of formulation of a new evidence-based migration policy for Europe, centred on the real economic benefits and prospects for development," Mr Rigoni stressed.

"At the same time, we will have to eliminate a number of bureaucratic barriers and practices of covert and overt discrimination against migrants, which significantly hinder their integration into host societies. To gain advantage in the global competition for the most highly-skilled specialists, European countries should increase labour market transparency and create more legal opportunities for migration to Europe," Mr Rigoni added.

The proposals contained in his report were unanimously adopted by the Migration Committee on 27 April. They include measures to facilitate access of migrants to the labour market, to enable the full and active participation of migrants in all aspects of life, to improve national legislation as well as to facilitate social security protection for all working migrants and their families. The committee also proposes the creation of a European Migration and Intercultural Development Observatory, which would assist member States in the development of strategies, legal frameworks, action plans and specific projects in the field of migration. Such an Observatory could be created as a so-called enlarged Partial Agreement of the Council of Europe, in cooperation with the European Union.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170515:

Action on Armed Violence 17-04-02:

85% of refugees in Europe are fleeing explosive violence, new research finds till sidans topp

85% of refugees in Europe are fleeing explosive violence, new research findsIn the first research of its kind, Action on Armed Violence (AOAV) has set out to examine the impact of explosive violence on the refugee crisis in Europe.

Interviewing over 250 refugees in the UK Germany, and Greece, AOAV found in The Refugee Explosion, that 85% of those interviewed had witnessed explosive violence. In total, some 69% had witnessed shelling, 61% airstrikes, 58% Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 39% suicide attacks.

Of those refugees questioned from Afghanistan, 92% had been directly impacted by explosive violence, and from Iraq 90% had been affected.

The findings are in line with other research AOAV has done. Since 2011, it has recorded 233,949 deaths and injuries from explosive violence from English-language news sources. 76% of these were civilians and when explosive weapons were used in populated areas, 92% of those killed or injured were civilians. Such levels of harm have had consequences - over the same amount of time Europe has seen over 4 million asylum applicants.

It is clear that the often-overwhelming numbers of refugees coming into Europe are largely doing so because they are fleeing explosive violence, and that this fact has not been fully realised by many European governments.

AOAV campaigns as part of the International Network of Explosive Weapons (INEW) to encourage States to sign up to political commitment not to use explosive violence in towns and cities.

Key findings of The Refugee Explosion

+ 85% of all refugees AOAV spoke to in Greece, Germany and the UK had witnessed explosive violence: 61% had witnessed airstrikes, 69% had witnessed shelling, 58% had witnessed IED attacks, 39% had witnessed suicide attacks.


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Arkiveringsdatum 170330:

Europarådet 17-03-10:

Thematic Report on migrant and refugee children till sidans topp

Prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary General on migration and refugees

In March 2016, the Secretary General's paper on "Protecting children affected by the refugee crisis: A shared responsibility" (SG/Inf(2016)9) identified a series of immediate, priority actions for member states and the Council of Europe. They would result in improved safety for these children and enhanced respect for the human rights standards of the Council of Europe, with a special focus on children who are unaccompanied.

Since his appointment, the Special Representative of the Secretary General on migration and refugees (hereafter the SRSG) has carried out four fact-finding missions in order to assess how the Council of Europe can assist member states to manage the current migratory flows, while respecting their commitments under Council of Europe human rights instruments. The SRSG has also initiated consultations within the Council of Europe on ongoing and future activities on refugee and migrant children with a view to the adoption, in early 2017, of a transversal action plan on refugee and migrant children. Moreover, discussions have taken placewith other international and European organisations that are active in the field of protection of migrants' and refugees' rights.

This thematic report focuses specifically on issues concerning refugee and migrant children, including children within families as well as unaccompanied and separated children. Its aim is to identify key findings from the SRSG's missions in 2016 and to reflect on how priorities must be addressed, both as a matter of urgency and in the ongoing work of the Council of Europe, in the upcoming action plan.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170320:

Justitiedepartementet 17-03-09:

Utredning: Att ta emot människor på flykt Sverige hösten 2015 till sidans topp

Hösten 2015 kom ett mycket stort antal människor på flykt till Sverige. Utredningens uppdrag har varit att göra en kartläggning av händelseförloppet under hösten 2015 och att utifrån det analysera regeringens, de statliga myndigheternas, kommunernas och landstingens ansvar och beredskap inför situationen samt deras och civilsamhällets hantering av situationen.

Utredningen redogör för vilka lärdomar som kan dras för att stärka förmågan hos berörda myndigheter och civilsamhället att hantera en eventuell liknande situation. Det har inte ingått i utredningens uppdrag att lämna förslag till åtgärder.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170214:

Justitiedepartementet 17-01-26:

Förlängd tid för delegationen för migrationsstudier till sidans topp

Regeringen beslutade den 21 november 2013 kommittédirektiv om delegation för migrationsstudier (dir. 2013:102). Enligt utredningens direktiv ska regeringen senast under 2017 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

Utredningstiden förlängs. Regeringen avser att senast under 2020 ta ställning till hur arbetet ska bedrivas i fortsättningen.

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Arkiveringsdatum 170126:

Statewatch 17-01-23:

Child mobility in the refugee crisis: What are the data gaps and why do they matter? till sidans topp

by Nando Sigona and Rachel Humphris

"Child migration into Europe is diverse and often invisible in data and policy. Legal definitions, bureaucratic practices, rights and entitlements of child migrants vary across European states. While some segments of this population are visible in public debate and datasets, especially unaccompanied asylum seeking children, others are hardly visible, particularly dependent children to asylum seeking parents and undocumented children."

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Previous, more detailed paper by the authors: Global Migration Data Analysis Centre Septemer 2016 (Extern länk)

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AIDA 17-01-17:

Asylum Statistics 2016: Sharper inequalities and persisting asylum lottery till sidans topp

Asylum statistics for 2016 in key European countries are in the process of being published by national authorities. This article provides an overview of asylum trends, up-to-date as of 24 January 2017.

Available statistics reveal sharper discrepancies in the distribution of refugees across Europe, as well as persisting disparities in the recognition of international protection.

Germany leads reception of asylum seekers

Germany, by far the main destination country last year, registered as many as 745,545 asylum applications. Only 280,000 of those concerned new arrivals, however, while the remainder were formal registrations of protection claims expressed in 2015. Despite a large influx of arrivals, only 476,649 people registered asylum applications in 2015. Until they are formally registered as applicants for international protection, people seeking asylum receive a certificate of "reporting as an asylum seeker" (BÜMA).

An increase in asylum applications compared to 2015 was also reported in Italy and France, where statistics refer to a total 123,482 and 85,244 claims respectively in 2016. Greece also saw a nearly fourfold increase in the number of asylum applications registered.

Most other countries remain far behind Germany and reported a decrease in the number of asylum applications registered last year.

The main nationalities of asylum seekers in 2016 remain Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. However, France saw mainly applications from nationals of Sudan, Afghanistan and Haiti, while Albania and Eritrea figured in the top three nationalities in the Netherlands.

Protection disparities persist


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Kristy Siegfried, IRIN in Rights in Exile 16-12-31: Migration trends to watch in 2017 (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 161123:

IOM 16-11-04:

Migrant Smuggling: IOM publishes first global report on evidence base till sidans topp

Migrant smuggling becomes visible when tragedies occur, such as people drowning or perishing inside trucks, but these events are likely to be just the tip of the iceberg. IOM's first global report on migrant smuggling provides a review of the emerging evidence base.

The report: "Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: A global review of the emerging evidence base" was launched this week (02/11) in Geneva and is the result of a collaboration between IOM and researchers from a range of backgrounds and academic disciplines. It was funded by the Government of Turkey.

"Reliance on smugglers makes migrants particularly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. In this ever more pressing situation, States are being severely tested in the fulfilment of their responsibilities to protect migrants' human rights and manage their borders," said IOM Director General William Lacy Swing.

"Against this backdrop, the report helps to deepen our understanding of the smuggling phenomenon and provides insights into how responses can be formulated that better protect migrants, while enhancing States' abilities to manage safe and orderly migration," he added.

The Permanent Representative of Turkey to the UN in Geneva, Ambassador Mehmet Ferden Çaržkçž said: "Establishing a good evidence base through proper research is absolutely vital to contribute to the development of better and more comprehensive operational responses to effectively address migrant smuggling, while improving the protection of vulnerable migrants."

The report shows that important research has been undertaken on the transnational crime aspects of migrant smuggling, including on routes, smuggling organization (such as criminal networking and facilitation), smuggler profiles and fees/payment. Likewise, there is an emerging academic literature on migrant smuggling, particularly the economic and social processes involved in smuggling.


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Arkiveringsdatum 161122:

UNHCR 16-10-25:

Afghan children in Sweden tell us who they are and why they are here till sidans topp

An unusually large number of unaccompanied or separated children from Afghanistan travelled to Europe in 2015 - more than half of these girls and boys arrived in Sweden where they sought asylum.

Who are they, why did they leave their country, how did the trip affect them and why did they choose Sweden as their final destination? To better understand the situation of these Afghan children, the UNHCR Regional Representation for Northern Europe recently conducted an in-depth survey, interviewing and leading focus group discussions with 274 girls and boys from Afghanistan under 18 who had arrived to Sweden over the last couple of months.

One of the main findings of the report highlights that the key reason for these Afghan children to travel was the deteriorating security situation, including violence, discrimination and tensions between ethnic groups in the country where they lived - they were not safe.

Karolina Lindholm Billing, deputy regional representative at the UNHCR Northern Europe office, reflected about the added value of the report, entitled "This is who we are"

"The fact that children are undertaking these long and dangerous journeys is extremely worrisome and presents a huge risk to their safety and well-being. This profiling survey of Afghan unaccompanied and separated children gives UNHCR a deeper understanding of why they leave their homes, and evidence to base our advocacy and interventions on, so that the protection needs of these children can be better met, both in their countries of origin or first asylum, and in countries of final destination." she said.


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Dagens Nyheter 16-11- 20: UNHCR: Börja med att spåra ensamkommandes familjer (Extern länk)

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Arkiveringsdatum 160930:

UNHCR 16-09-14:

Accenture study finds internet, mobile connectivity a lifeline for refugees till sidans topp

Refugees view access to a mobile phone and internet as being critical to their safety and security and essential for keeping in touch with loved ones. Many refugees regard a connected device as being as vital to them as food, water or shelter, according to a new report from UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and Accenture (NYSE: ACN).

The report, "Connecting Refugees: How Internet and Mobile Connectivity Can Improve Refugee Well-being and Transform Humanitarian Action," is based on research undertaken in 44 countries on four continents. It shows that for many refugees a connected device is a lifeline and a critical tool for self-empowerment.

Unsurprisingly, affordability is often a barrier to connectivity. Refugees living in urban areas tend to have similar access to mobile networks as other urban populations, but for refugees in rural locations the picture is very different, with only one in six refugees located in areas with 3G access, and one in five rural refugees having no mobile coverage at all - significantly lower than for the population at large. This effectively prevents many refugees from participating in the cultural, educational, and economic activity that connectivity affords.

"In the world we live in today, internet connectivity and smart phones can become a lifeline for refugees, providing an essential means for them to give and receive vital information, communicate with separated family members, gain access to essential services, and reconnect to the local, national and global communities around them," said Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Most importantly, connectivity can help broaden the opportunities for refugees to improve their own lives and pursue a vision of a future that would otherwise be denied to them."

Key Findings


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Arkiveringsdatum 160914:

Unicef September 2016:

Uprooted: The growing crisis for refugee and migrant children till sidans topp

Around the world, nearly 50 million children have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced. This report presents - for the first time - comprehensive, global data about these children - where they are born, where they move and some of the dangers they face along the way. The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region.

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Overseas Development Institute September 2016:

Europe's refugees and migrants: hidden flows, tightened borders and spiralling costs till sidans topp

John Cosgrave, Karen Hargrave, Marta Foresti and Isabella Massa, with Justin Beresford, Helen Dempster and Joanna Rea

The European response to the current migration 'crisis' has been swift. Since 2014, at least €17 billion has been spent on deterring refugees and migrants through tighter border controls and bilateral agreements, such as the EU-Turkey deal. These measures have been effective in reducing flows - as few as 330,000 refugees and migrants are likely to arrive in Europe this year via the Mediterranean through 'overt' routes.

However, Europe will still see 890,000 asylum applications in 2016. This discrepancy between overt arrivals and asylum applications shows that there are many people whose journeys to Europe we know little about. Border controls have, in many cases, simply rerouted refugees and migrants towards alternative, 'covert' routes.

As a result of the analysis in this report, we conclude that Europe needs a new approach. It needs to shift from an emphasis on controlling and deterring migration, towards a pragmatic and effective approach to manage it better. This report makes four key policy recommendations:

1. European governments should facilitate and increase legal pathways so that they can monitor and more effectively manage flows of refugees and migrants.

2. A new global alliance of migration and displacement data is needed.

3. Governments should commit to more transparency on deterrence costs, as well as the significant reception and procedural costs in both national and EU budgets.

4. Forge new international and regional coalitions built around common interests and objectives that aim to ensure safe, controlled and well-managed migration.

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Arkiveringsdatum 160831:

IOM 16-08-16:

Iraqi Migration to Europe: IOM Report till sidans topp

IOM Iraq today released a report: "Migration Flows from Iraq to Europe: Reasons Behind Migration". The report explores the reasons why Iraqi migrants choose Europe, their hopes and expectations, and motives for returning to their home country.

The qualitative study is based on 14 focus group discussions with 86 Iraqis who migrated to Europe in 2015 and subsequently returned to Iraq. The focus group discussions were held in Baghdad and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) between March and April 2016. All participants returned to Iraq through IOM's Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programme.

The findings reveal that the main reasons cited for emigration from Iraq were lack of security (general and personal), perceived lack of equality and social justice, and political instability. Economic instability was mentioned across all locations, but was considered secondary to security concerns in Baghdad.

Reasons behind choosing Europe as a destination included perceived security, equality and social justice. The way to Europe was seen as open, which for migrants implied lower risks and costs, and European countries were thought to have favourable immigration policies.

Many participants selected a country of destination based on the presence of friends or relatives and on information, most often obtained by word of mouth, about the ease of obtaining residency permits and the possibility of family reunification.

However, most migrants reported that life in Europe had been idealized and that the reality was more difficult than expected. The main reasons for their disappointment and frustration were the length and unpredictability of the asylum application process, followed by living conditions, which were dependent on the reception system in the country of destination.


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Rapporten: Migration Flows from Iraq to Europe: Reasons Behind Migration (Extern länk)

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Källor: Informationen på denna sida är hämtad från följande källor (externa länkar): EU (kommissionen, ministerrådet, parlamentet och domstolen), Europarådet (mr-kommissionären, domstolen, kommittén mot tortyr), FN:s flyktingkommissariat UNHCR, FN:s kommitté mot tortyr m.fl. FN-organ, svenska media via Eniro och pressmeddelanden via Newsdesk, utländska media främst via I Care och IRR, internationella organisationer som Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ECRE, ENAR, Statewatch, Noborder och Picum, organisationer i Sverige som Rädda Barnen, Röda Korset, Svenska Amnesty, FARR, Rosengrenska och InfoTorg Juridik (betaltjänst) samt myndigheter och politiska organ som Migrationsverket, Sveriges domstolar, JO, Justitiedepartementet m.fl. departement och Sveriges Riksdag.

Bevakning: Josefin Åström, Hjalte Lagercrantz, Karin Nilsson Kelly, Sanna Vestin. Sammanställning: Sanna Vestin. Asylnytt är ett ideellt projekt.